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Mustafa İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
(Turkish pronunciation: [isˈmet ˈinøny]; 24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general[1] and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 11 November 1938, the day after the death of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, to 22 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections. He also served as the first Chief of the General
General
Staff from 1922 to 1924, and as the first Prime Minister after the declaration of the Republic, serving three terms: from 1923 to 1924, 1925 to 1937, and 1961 to 1965. As President, he was granted the official title of "Milli Şef" (National Chief).[2] When the 1934 Surname Law was adopted, Mustafa Kemal gave him a surname taken from İnönü, where he commanded the forces of Army of Grand National Assembly as the Minister of the Chief of the General Staff (Erkân-ı Harbiye-i Umumiye Reis Vekili) during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. Afterwards these battles became to be known as the First Battle of İnönü and Second Battle of İnönü.

Contents

1 Family and early life 2 Early military career 3 Turkish War of Independence

3.1 Chief negotiator in Mudanya and Lausanne

4 Single-party period

4.1 Prime Minister

4.1.1 Statism in economy

5 "National Chief" period

5.1 President

6 Multi-party period 7 Legacy 8 Media 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Family and early life[edit]

President İnönü (far right) with his family, c.1940s; from left: his wife Mevhibe, and their three children, Ömer, Özden (later Toker), and Erdal

İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
was born in İzmir, Aidin Vilayet
Aidin Vilayet
to Hacı Reşit (Turkish: [hadʒɯ reʃit]) and Cevriye (Turkish: [dʒevrije]) (later Cevriye Temelli), and was of Turkicized Kurdish descent on his father's side and of Turkish descent through his mother.[3][4][5][6][7] Hacı Reşit was retired from the First Examinant Department of Legal Affairs Bureau of the War Ministry (Harbiye Nezareti Muhakemat Dairesi Birinci Mümeyyizliği),[8] who was born in Malatya
Malatya
and a member of Kümüroğulları family of Bitlis. Cevriye was a daughter of Müderris (professor) Hasan Efendi who belonged to the ulema[8] and was a member of a Turkish family of Razgrad.[9] Due to his father's assignments, the family moved from one city to another. Thus, Ismet completed his primary education in Sivas and graduated Sivas
Sivas
Military Junior High School ( Sivas
Sivas
Askerî Rüştiyesi) in 1894. And then he studied at Sivas
Sivas
School for Civil Servants ( Sivas
Sivas
Mülkiye İdadisi) for a year. Early military career[edit] Ismet graduated from the Imperial School of Military Engineering (Mühendishane-i Berrî-i Hümâyûn) in 1903 as gunnery officer, and received his first military assignment in the Ottoman Army. He joined the Committee of Union and Progress. He won his first military victories by suppressing two major revolts against the struggling Ottoman Empire, first in Rumelia
Rumelia
and later in Yemen,[citation needed] whose leader was Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din. He served as a military officer during the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
on the Ottoman-Bulgarian front. During World War I, he served with the Ottoman military rank of Miralay (arbitrarily the equivalent of Colonel
Colonel
or Senior Colonel
Colonel
(Brigadier)) and worked under Mustafa Kemal Pasha
Mustafa Kemal Pasha
during his assignments at the Caucasus and Palestine fronts. During the war, on 13 April 1916, Ismet married Mevhibe, who was a daughter of an Ashraf
Ashraf
(Eşraf) of Ziştovi (present day Svishtov) Zühtü Efendi. They had three children: Ömer, Erdal and Özden (married to Metin Toker).[8] Turkish War of Independence[edit] See also: Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
and Treaty of Lausanne

Turkish delegation after having signed the Treaty of Lausanne. The delegation was led by İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
(in the middle)

After losing the Battle of Megiddo against General
General
Edmund Allenby during the last days of World War I, he went to Constantinople (Istanbul) and was assigned Undersecretary of the Ministry of War and then General
General
Secretary of the Documentation in the Military Council. After the military occupation of Constantinople on 16 March 1920, he decided to pass to Anatolia
Anatolia
to join the Turkish National Movement. He and his chief of staff Major Saffet (Arıkan) wore soldier uniform and left Maltepe in the evening of 19 March 1920 and arrived at Ankara
Ankara
on 9 April 1920. He was appointed the commander of the Western Front of the Army of the Grand National Assembly (GNA), a position in which he remained during the Turkish War of Independence. He was promoted to the rank of Mirliva (arbitrarily the equivalent of Brigadier
Brigadier
General
General
or Major General; the most junior General
General
rank with the title Pasha
Pasha
in the Ottoman and pre-1934 Turkish Army) after winning the First Battle of İnönü which took place between 9 and 11 January 1921. He also won the subsequent Second Battle of İnönü which was fought between 26 and 31 March 1921. During the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
he was also a member of the GNA in Ankara. İnönü was replaced by Mustafa Fevzi Pasha, who was also the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense at the time, as the Chief of Staff of the Army of the GNA after the Turkish forces lost major battles against the advancing Greek Army in July 1921, as a result of which the cities Afyonkarahisar, Kütahya
Kütahya
and Eskişehir
Eskişehir
were temporarily lost. He participated as a staff officer (with the rank Brigadier General) to the later battles, until the final Turkish victory in September 1922. Chief negotiator in Mudanya and Lausanne[edit] See also: Armistice of Mudanya
Armistice of Mudanya
and Treaty of Lausanne After the War of Independence was won, İsmet Pasha
Pasha
was appointed as the chief negotiator of the Turkish delegation, both for the Armistice of Mudanya and for the Treaty of Lausanne. The Lausanne conference convened in late 1922 to settle the terms of a new treaty that would take the place of the Treaty of Sèvres. Inönü became famous for his stubborn resolve in determining Ankara's position as the legitimate, sovereign government of Turkey. After delivering his position, Inönü turned off his hearing aid during the speeches of British foreign secretary Lord Curzon. When Curzon had finished, Inönü reiterated his position as if Curzon had never said a word.[10] Single-party period[edit] See also: Single-party period of the Republic of Turkey Prime Minister[edit]

İnönü as the Prime Minister during the single party period.

İnönü later served as the Prime Minister of Turkey
Prime Minister of Turkey
for several terms, maintaining the system that Mustafa Kemal had put in place. He acted after every major crisis (such as the rebellion of Sheikh Said or the attempted assassination in Izmir against Mustafa Kemal) to restore peace in the country. Statism in economy[edit] He tried to manage the economy with heavy-handed government intervention, especially after the 1929 economic crisis, by implementing an economic plan inspired by the Five Year Plan of the Soviet Union. In doing so, he took much private property under government control. Due to his efforts, to this day, more than 70% of land in Turkey
Turkey
is still owned by the state.[citation needed] Desiring a more liberal economic system, Atatürk
Atatürk
dissolved the government of İnönü[11] and appointed Celâl Bayar, the founder of the first Turkish commercial bank Türkiye İş Bankası, as Prime Minister. "National Chief" period[edit] President[edit]

Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference
Second Cairo Conference
on 4–6 December 1943.

İnönü as the Prime Minister in 1964.

Celâl Bayar
Celâl Bayar
and İnönü visiting the Bakırköy Cloth Factory.

After the death of Atatürk
Atatürk
on 10 November 1938,[12] İnönü was viewed as the most appropriate candidate to succeed him, and was elected the second President of the Republic of Turkey. He enjoyed the official title of "Milli Şef", i.e. "National Chief". World War II
World War II
broke out in the first year of his presidency, and both the Allies and the Axis pressured İnönü to bring Turkey
Turkey
into the war on their side.[13] The Germans sent Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
to Ankara
Ankara
in April 1939 while the British sent Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen
Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen
and the French René Massigli. On 23 April 1939, Turkish Foreign Minister Şükrü Saracoğlu
Şükrü Saracoğlu
told Knatchbull-Hugessen of his nation's fears of Italian claims of the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Mare Nostrum
and German control of the Balkans, and suggested an Anglo-Soviet-Turkish alliance as the best way of countering the Axis.[14] In May 1939, during the visit of Maxime Weygand
Maxime Weygand
to Turkey, İnönü told the French Ambassador René Massigli that he believed that the best way of stopping Germany was an alliance of Turkey, the Soviet Union, France and Britain; that if such an alliance came into being, the Turks would allow Soviet ground and air forces onto their soil; and that he wanted a major programme of French military aid to modernize the Turkish armed forces.[15] The signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
on 23 August 1939 drew Turkey away from the Allies; the Turks always believed that it was essential to have the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as an ally to counter Germany, and thus the signing of the German-Soviet pact undercut completely the assumptions behind Turkish security policy.[16] With the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, İnönü chose to be neutral in World War II as taking on Germany and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the same time would be too much for Turkey, through he signed a treaty of alliance with Britain and France on 19 October 1939.[17] It was only with France's defeat in June 1940 that İnönü abandoned the pro-Allied neutrality that he had followed since the beginning of the war.[17] A major embarrassment for the Turks occurred in July 1940 when the Germans captured and published documents from the Quai d'Orsay in Paris showing the Turks were aware of Operation Pike
Operation Pike
as the Anglo-French plan in the winter of 1939-40 to bomb the oil fields in the Soviet Union from Turkey
Turkey
was codenamed, which was intended by Berlin to worsen relations between Ankara
Ankara
and Moscow.[18] In turn, worsening relations between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Turkey
Turkey
were intended to drive Turkey
Turkey
into the arms of the Reich.[17] After the publication of the French documents relating to Operation Pike, İnönü had to fire Saracoğlu as Foreign Minister following Soviet complaints and signed an economic treaty with Germany that placed Turkey
Turkey
within the German economic sphere of influence, but İnönü would go no further towards the Axis.[17] In the first half of 1941, Germany which was intent upon invading the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
went out of its way to improve relations with Turkey
Turkey
as the Reich hoped for a benevolent Turkish neutrality when the German-Soviet war began.[19] At the same time, the British had great hopes in the spring of 1941 when they dispatched an expeditionary force to Greece that İnönü could be persuaded to enter the war on the Allied side as the British leadership had high hopes of creating a Balkan front that would tie down German forces, and which thus led a major British diplomatic offensive with the Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
visiting Ankara
Ankara
several times to meet with İnönü.[20] İnönü always told Eden that the Turks would not join the British forces in Greece, and the Turks would only enter the war if Germany attacked Turkey.[21] For his part, Papen offered İnönü parts of Greece if Turkey
Turkey
were to enter the war on the Axis side, an offer İnönü declined.[21] In May 1941 when the Germans dispatched an expeditionary force to Iraq to fight against the British, İnönü refused Papen's request that the German forces be allowed transit rights to Iraq.[22] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
travelled to Ankara
Ankara
on 30 January 1943 for a conference with President İnönu, to urge Turkey's entry into the war on the allied side.[23] Churchill met secretly with İnönü in January 1943, inside a railroad car at the Yenice Station near Adana. However, by December 4–6, 1943, İnönü felt confident enough about the outcome of the war, that he met openly with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at the Second Cairo Conference. Until 1941, both Roosevelt and Churchill had thought that Turkey's continuing neutrality would serve the interests of the Allies by blocking the Axis from reaching the strategic oil reserves of the Middle East. But the early victories of the Axis up to the end of 1942 caused Roosevelt and Churchill to re-evaluate a possible Turkish participation in the war on the side of the Allies. Turkey
Turkey
had maintained a decently-sized Army and Air Force throughout the war, and Churchill wanted the Turks to open a new front in the Balkans. Roosevelt, on the other hand, still believed that a Turkish attack would be too risky, and an eventual Turkish failure would have disastrous effects for the Allies. İnönü knew very well the hardships which his country had suffered during decades of incessant war between 1908 and 1922 and was determined to keep Turkey
Turkey
out of another war as long as he could. The young Turkish Republic was still re-building, recovering from the losses due to earlier wars, and lacked any modern weapons and the infrastructure to enter a war to be fought along and possibly within its borders. İnönü based his neutrality policy during the Second World War on the premise that Western Allies and the Soviet Union would sooner or later have a falling out after the war.[24] Thus, İnönu wanted assurances on financial and military aid for Turkey, as well as a guarantee that the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom would stand beside Turkey
Turkey
in the event of a Soviet invasion of the Turkish Straits
Turkish Straits
after the war. In August 1944 İnönü broke off diplomatic relations with Germany and on 5 January 1945, İnönü severed diplomatic relations with Japan.[25] Shortly afterwards, İnönü allowed Allied shipping to use the Turkish straits to send supplies to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and on 25 February 1945 he declared war on Germany and Japan.[22] The post-war tensions and arguments surrounding the Turkish Straits would come to be known as the Turkish Straits
Turkish Straits
crisis. The fear of Soviet invasion and Joseph Stalin's unconcealed desire for Soviet military bases in the Turkish Straits[24] eventually caused Turkey
Turkey
to give up its principle of neutrality in foreign relations and join NATO in February 1952.[26] Multi-party period[edit] See also: Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey

İnönü's tomb at Anıtkabir

Under international pressure to transform the country to a democratic state, İnönü presided over the infamous 1946 elections, where voting was carried out under the gaze of onlookers who could determine which voters had voted for which parties, and where secrecy prevailed as to the subsequent counting of votes. Free and fair national elections had to wait till 1950, and on that occasion İnönü's government was defeated. In the 1950 campaign, the leading figures of the opposition Democrat Party used the following slogan: "Geldi İsmet, kesildi kısmet" ("Since Ismet came, wealth declined" ). İnönü presided over the peaceful transfer of power to the Democratic Party of Celâl Bayar
Celâl Bayar
and Adnan Menderes. For ten years he served as the leader of the opposition before returning to power as Prime Minister after the 1961 election, held after the military coup-d'etat in 1960. Even though the pro-Menderes opposition was forbidden to contest the 1961 election (most of its leaders who were still alive were in prison), İnönü's forces still did not gain enough seats in the legislature to win a majority. Therefore they had to form coalition governments until 1965. İnönü lost both the 1965 and 1969 general elections to a much younger man, Süleyman Demirel, but he remained leader of the party till 1972, whereupon he was defeated by leadership rival Bülent Ecevit. A highly educated man, İnönü was able to speak fluently Arabic, English, French and German in addition to his native Turkish. He died on 25 December 1973, at the age of 89, and was interred opposite to Atatürk's mausoleum at Anıtkabir
Anıtkabir
in Ankara. Legacy[edit] İnönü University
İnönü University
and Malatya
Malatya
İnönü Stadium in Malatya
Malatya
are named after him, as is the İnönü Stadium in Istanbul, home of the Beşiktaş football club. Media[edit]

Text of the message by President İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
on Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

See also[edit]

Pembe Köşk
Pembe Köşk
– Private home from 1925 to 1973 Çankaya Köşkü
Çankaya Köşkü
– The Presidency of the Republic of Turkey List of high-ranking commanders of the Turkish War of Independence Treaty of Lausanne 1st government of Turkey 2nd government of Turkey 4th government of Turkey 26th government of Turkey 27th government of Turkey 28th government of Turkey

References[edit]

^ TSK Genel Kurmay Baskanlari ^ Howard, Douglas Arthur (2001). The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 109. ISBN 0-313-30708-3. ^ N. Pope, H. Pope, Turkey
Turkey
Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey, Overlook Press, 1998, ISBN 1-58567-096-0, ISBN 978-1-58567-096-3, p.254 (... president of republic, including Ismet Inönü and Turgut Özal, had Kurdish blood. Several cabinet ministers in 1980s and 1990s had been Kurdish...) – reference found in Turkish article ^ Romano, David, The Kurdish nationalist movement: opportunity, mobilization, and identity, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 118; Despite his own Kurdish ancestry, Inonu had apparently embraced Ziya Gokalp's notions of Turkism, which allowed him to advance to the highest post of the new republic. ^ Erik Jan Zürcher, "The Young Turks – Children of the Borderlands?" at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 12 January 2008) (October 2002) ^ "Demek İsmet Kürttür. Hem de koyu Kürt! Biz bu heyetin başından Abaza diye Rauf’u attırdık. Türk diye bir halis Kürt getirmişiz, vah yazık!", Rıza Nur, Hayat ve Hatıratım: Rıza Nur-İnönü kavgası, Lozan ve ötesi, İşaret Yayınları, 1992, p. 235. ^ "Even Ismet Inonu, Ataturk's long time ally and successor, was discouraged from revealing his Kurdish heritage.", Nader Entessar, "The Kurdish Mosaic of Discord", Third World Foundation, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 4, Ethnicity in World Politics (Oct. 1989), Carfax Publishing Co., 1989, p. 93. ^ a b c T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1972. (in Turkish) ^ Günvar Otmanbölük, İsmet Paşa Dosyası, Cilt 1, Yaylacık Matbaası, 1969, p. 6. (in Turkish) ^ Cleveland, William L., and Martin P. Bunton. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview, 2013. Print. ^ Lord Kinross, Ataturk: A biography of Mustafa Kermal, Father of Modern Turkey
Turkey
(New York: William Morrow & Company, 1965) p. 449. ^ Nicole Pope and Hugh Pope, Turkey
Turkey
Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey
Turkey
(New York: The Overlook Press, 2004) p. 68. ^ Nicole Pope and Hugh Pope, Turkey
Turkey
Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey, p. 75. ^ Watt, D.C. How War Came : The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–1939 ,London: Heinemann, 1989 page 278 ^ Watt, D.C. How War Came : The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–1939, London: Heinemann, 1989 page 282 ^ Watt, D.C. How War Came : The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–1939, London: Heinemann, 1989 page 310. ^ a b c d Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 78 ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 970 ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 pages 196-197. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 pages 216-216. ^ a b Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 219. ^ a b Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 226. ^ Andrew Mango, The Turks Today, (New York: The Overlook Press, 2004) p. 36. ^ a b Andrew Mango, The Turks Today, p. 37. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 809. ^ Andrew Mango, The Turks Today, p. 47.

Further reading[edit]

Kinross, Lord, Ataturk: A Biography of Mustafa Kermal, Father of Modern Turkey
Turkey
(New York: William Morrow & Company, 1965). Liebmann, George W. Diplomacy between the Wars: Five Diplomats and the Shaping of the Modern World (London I. B. Tauris, 2008) Mango, Andrew, The Turks Today (New York: The Overlook Press, 2004). ISBN 1-58567-615-2. Pope, Nicole and Pope, Hugh, Turkey
Turkey
Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey
Turkey
(New York: The Overlook Press, 2004). ISBN 1-58567-581-4.

External links[edit]

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Biography ( İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
Foundation) İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
at Encyclopædia Britannica Newspaper clippings about İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Military offices

New title Office established

Chief of Turkish General
General
Staff 1920–1921 Succeeded by Fevzi Çakmak

Political offices

Preceded by Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey 1922–1924 Succeeded by Şükrü Kaya

Preceded by Ali Fethi Okyar Prime Minister of Turkey 1923–1924 Succeeded by Ali Fethi Okyar

Preceded by Ali Fethi Okyar Prime Minister of Turkey 1925–1937 Succeeded by Celal Bayar

Preceded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk President of Turkey 1938–1950 Succeeded by Celal Bayar

Preceded by Emin Fahrettin Özdilek Prime Minister of Turkey 1961–1965 Succeeded by Suat Hayri Ürgüplü

Party political offices

Preceded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP) 1938–1972 Succeeded by Bülent Ecevit

v t e

Presidents of Turkey
Turkey
(List)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk İsmet İnönü Celâl Bayar Cemal Gürsel Cevdet Sunay Fahri Korutürk Kenan Evren Turgut Özal Süleyman Demirel Ahmet Necdet Sezer Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

v t e

Leaders of the Republican People's Party

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk İsmet İnönü Bülent Ecevit Deniz Baykal Hikmet Çetin Deniz Baykal Altan Öymen Deniz Baykal Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu

v t e

Prime Minister of Turkey

Government of the Grand National Assembly (1920–1923)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Fevzi Çakmak Rauf Orbay Fethi Okyar

Republic of Turkey (since 1923)

İsmet İnönü Fethi Okyar İsmet İnönü Celâl Bayar Refik Saydam Ahmet Fikri Tüzer Şükrü Saracoğlu Recep Peker Hasan Saka Şemsettin Günaltay Adnan Menderes Cemal Gürsel Fahri Özdilek İsmet İnönü Suat Hayri Ürgüplü Süleyman Demirel Nihat Erim Ferit Melen Naim Talu Bülent Ecevit Sadi Irmak Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ulusu Turgut Özal Ali Bozer Yıldırım Akbulut Mesut Yılmaz Süleyman Demirel Erdal İnönü Tansu Çiller Mesut Yılmaz Necmettin Erbakan Mesut Yılmaz Bülent Ecevit Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Ahmet Davutoğlu Binali Yıldırım

Italics denote acting prime ministers.

v t e

Foreign Ministers of Turkey

Bekir Sami Kunduh
Bekir Sami Kunduh
(1920–21) Ahmet Muhtar Mollaoğlu
Ahmet Muhtar Mollaoğlu
(1921) Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk (1921–22) İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
(1922–24) Şükrü Kaya(1924–25) Tevfik Rüştü Aras
Tevfik Rüştü Aras
(1925–38) Şükrü Saracoğlu
Şükrü Saracoğlu
(1938–42) Hüseyin Numan Menemencioğlu
Hüseyin Numan Menemencioğlu
(1942–44) Hasan Saka (1944–47) Necmettin Sadak (1947–50) Mehmet Fuat Köprülü
Mehmet Fuat Köprülü
(1950–56) Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
(1956–57) Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
(1957–60) Selim Sarper
Selim Sarper
(1960–62) Feridun Cemal Erkin
Feridun Cemal Erkin
(1962–65) Hasan Esat Işık
Hasan Esat Işık
(1965) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1965–71) Osman Olcay (1971) Ümit Haluk Bayülken
Ümit Haluk Bayülken
(1971–74) Turan Güneş
Turan Güneş
(1974) Melih Esenbel (1974–75) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1975–77) Gündüz Ökçün (1977) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1977–78) Ahmet Gündüz Ökçün (1978–79) Hayrettin Erkmen (1979–80) İlter Türkmen
İlter Türkmen
(1980–83) Vahit Melih Halefoğlu (1983–87) Mesut Yılmaz (1987–90) Ali Bozer (1990) Ahmet Kurtcebe Alptemoçin (1990–91) Safa Giray (1991) Hikmet Çetin
Hikmet Çetin
(1991–94) Mümtaz Soysal (1994) Murat Karayalçın
Murat Karayalçın
(1994–95) Erdal İnönü (1995) Coşkun Kırca
Coşkun Kırca
(1995) Deniz Baykal
Deniz Baykal
(1995–96) Emre Gönensay (1996) Tansu Çiller
Tansu Çiller
(1996–97) İsmail Cem (1997–2002) Şükrü Sina Gürel
Şükrü Sina Gürel
(2002) Yaşar Yakış
Yaşar Yakış
(2002–03) Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
(2003–07) Ali Babacan
Ali Babacan
(2007–09) Ahmet Davutoğlu
Ahmet Davutoğlu
(2009–14) Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
(2014–15) Feridun Sinirlioğlu
Feridun Sinirlioğlu
(2015–15) Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
(2015–

v t e

Chiefs of the General
General
Staff of Turkey

İnönü Çakmak Orbay Omurtak Gürman Yamut Baransel Tunaboylu Mengüç Erdelhun Gümüşpala Sunay Tural Tağmaç Gürler Sancar Evren Ersin Üruğ Torumtay Güreş Karadayı Kıvrıkoğlu Özkök Büyükanıt Başbuğ Koşaner Özel Akar

v t e

Leader of the Main Opposition of Turkey

Kazım Karabekir Fethi Okyar Celâl Bayar İsmet İnönü Ekrem Alican Ragıp Gümüşpala Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Necdet Calp Aydın Güven Gürkan Erdal İnönü Mesut Yılmaz Necmettin Erbakan Recai Kutan Deniz Baykal Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu

v t e

Party leaders in Turkey

Before 1960

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Kâzım Karabekir Fethi Okyar İsmet İnönü Nuri Demirağ Celâl Bayar Hikmet Bayur Adnan Menderes Osman Bölükbaşı Ekrem Hayri Üstündağ Fevzi Lütfi Karaosmanoğlu

1960–80

Ekrem Alican Ragıp Gümüşpala Ahmet Oğuz Mehmet Ali Aybar Süleyman Demirel Alparslan Türkeş Turhan Feyzioğlu Hüseyin Balan Mustafa Timisi Ferruh Bozbeyli Behice Boran Necmettin Erbakan Bülent Ecevit Kemal Satır

1980–present

Turgut Sunalp Turgut Özal Necdet Calp Erdal İnönü Ahmet Nusret Tuna Cezmi Kartay Yıldırım Avcı Ahmet Tekdal Hüsamettin Cindoruk Aydın Güven Gürkan Ülkü Söylemezoğlu Rahşan Ecevit Mehmet Yazar Necdet Karababa Yıldırım Akbulut Mesut Yılmaz Doğu Perinçek Tansu Çiller Murat Karayalçın Deniz Baykal Hikmet Çetin Devlet Bahçeli Recai Kutan Altan Öymen Ahmet Türk Recep Tayyip Erdoğan İsmail Cem İpekçi Zeki Sezer Yaşar Nuri Öztürk Masum Türker Süleyman Soylu Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu Ahmet Davutoğlu Binali Yıldırım Selahattin Demirtaş

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71565655 LCCN: n85039604 ISNI: 0000 0001 2138 9519 GND: 118896067 SUDOC: 050677071 BNF: cb13605357m (da

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