ĀTMAN (/ˈɑːtmən/ ) is a
The six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe that there is Ātman (soul, self) in every being, a major point of difference with Buddhism , which does not believe that there is either soul or self.
* 1 Etymology and meaning
* 2 Development of the concept
* 2.2 Upanishads
* 3 Schools of thought
* 4 Influence of Atman theory on
* 4.1 Dharma-sutras
* 8 References
* 8.1 Bibliography
* 9 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND MEANING
"Ātman" (Atma, आत्मा, आत्मन्) is a Sanskrit word which means "essence, breath, soul." It is related to the PIE *etmen (a root meaning "breath"; cognates: Dutch adem, Old High German atum "breath," Modern German atmen "to breathe" and Atem "respiration, breath", Old English eþian).
Ātman, sometimes spelled without a diacritic as atman in scholarly literature, means "real self" of the individual, "innermost essence", and soul. Atman, in Hinduism, is considered as eternal, imperishable, beyond time, states Roshen Dalal, "not the same as body or mind or consciousness, but is something beyond which permeates all these". Atman is a metaphysical and spiritual concept for the Hindus, often discussed in their scriptures with the concept of Brahman .
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT
The earliest use of word "Ātman" in Indian texts is found in the Rig Veda (RV X.97.11). Yāska , the ancient Indian grammarian, commenting on this Rigvedic verse, accepts the following meanings of Ātman: the pervading principle, the organism in which other elements are united and the ultimate sentient principle.
Other hymns of Rig Veda where the word Ātman appears include I.115.1, VII.87.2, VII.101.6, VIII.3.24, IX.2.10, IX.6.8, and X.168.4.
Ātman is a central idea in all of the Upanishads , and "know your Ātman" is their thematic focus. These texts state that the core of every person's self is not the body, nor the mind, nor the ego, but "Ātman", which means "soul" or "self". Atman is the spiritual essence in all creatures, their real innermost essential being. It is eternal, it is the essence, it is ageless. Atman is that which one is at the deepest level of one's existence.
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as that in which everything exists, which is of the highest value, which permeates everything, which is the essence of all, bliss and beyond description. In hymn 4.4.5, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as Brahman (universal absolute; supreme soul), and associates it with everything one is, everything one can be, one's free will, one's desire, what one does, what one doesn't do, the good in oneself, the bad in oneself.
That Atman (self, soul) is indeed Brahman. It is also identified with the intellect, the Manas (mind), and the vital breath, with the eyes and ears, with earth, water, air, and ākāśa (sky), with fire and with what is other than fire, with desire and the absence of desire, with anger and the absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with everything — it is identified, as is well known, with this (what is perceived) and with that (what is inferred). As it does and acts, so it becomes: by doing good it becomes good, and by doing evil it becomes evil. It becomes virtuous through good acts, and vicious through evil acts. Others, however, say, "The self is identified with desire alone. What it desires, so it resolves; what it resolves, so is its deed; and what deed it does, so it reaps. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5, 9th century BCE
This theme of Ātman, that is soul and self of oneself, every person, every being is the same as Brahman, is extensively repeated in Brihadāranyaka Upanishad. The Upanishad asserts that this knowledge of "I am Brahman", and that there is no difference between "I" and "you", or "I" and "him" is a source of liberation, and not even gods can prevail over such a liberated man. For example, in hymn 1.4.10,
Brahman was this before; therefore it knew even the Ātma (soul, himself). I am Brahman, therefore it became all. And whoever among the gods had this enlightenment, also became That. It is the same with the sages, the same with men. Whoever knows the self as “I am Brahman,” becomes all this universe. Even the gods cannot prevail against him, for he becomes their Ātma. Now, if a man worships another god, thinking: “He is one and I am another,” he does not know. He is like an animal to the gods. As many animals serve a man, so does each man serve the gods. Even if one animal is taken away, it causes anguish; how much more so when many are taken away? Therefore it is not pleasing to the gods that men should know this. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10
Along with the Brihadāranyaka, all the earliest and middle Upanishads discuss Ātman as they build their theories to answer how man can achieve liberation, freedom and bliss. The Katha Upanishad , for example, explains Atman as immanent and transcendent innermost essence of each human being and living creature, that this is one, even though the external forms of living creatures manifest in different forms, for example, in hymns 2.2.9 and others, its states
As the one fire, after it has entered the world, though one, takes different forms according to whatever it burns,
so does the internal Ātman of all living beings, though one, takes a form according to whatever He enters and is outside all forms. — Katha Upanishad, 2.2.9
Katha Upanishad, in Book 1, hymns 3.3 to 3.4, describes the widely
cited analogy of chariot for the relation of "Soul, Self" to body,
mind and senses. Stephen Kaplan translates these hymns as, "Know the
The Chandogya Upanishad explains Ātman as that which appears to be separate between two living beings but isn't, that essence and innermost, true, radiant self of all individuals which connects and unifies all. In hymn 4.10.1 through 4.10.3, for example, it explains it with example of rivers, some of which flow to the east and some to the west, but ultimately all merge into the ocean and become one. In the same way, the individual souls are pure being, states the Chandogya Upanishad; an individual soul is pure truth, and an individual soul is a manifestation of the ocean of one universal soul.
Ātman is a key topic of the Upanishads, but they express two
distinct, somewhat divergent themes. Some teach that
reality; universal principle; being-consciousness-bliss) is identical
with Ātman, while others teach that Ātman is part of
Brahman but not
identical to it. This ancient debate flowered into various dual and
non-dual theories in Hinduism. The
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All major orthodox schools of
Hinduism –Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya,
Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta– accept the foundational premise of the
Knowing Ātman, also referred to as self-knowledge, is one of the
defining themes of all major orthodox schools of Hinduism, but they
diverge on how. In Hinduism, self-knowledge is the knowledge and
understanding of Atman, what it is, and what it is not. Hinduism
considers Atman as distinct from the ever-evolving individual
personality characterized with
Ahamkara (ego, non-spiritual
psychological I-ness Me-ness), habits, prejudices, desires, impulses,
delusions, fads, behaviors, pleasures, sufferings and fears. Human
Ahamkara shift, evolve or change with time, state the
schools of Hinduism; while, Atman doesn't. Atman, state these
schools, is the unchanging, eternal, innermost radiant self that is
unaffected by personality, unaffected by ego of oneself, unaffected by
ego of others; Atman is that which is ever-free, never-bound, one that
seeks, realizes and is the realized purpose, meaning, liberation in
life. Puchalski states, "the ultimate goal of
Philosophical schools such as Advaita (non-dualism) see the "spirit/soul/self" within each living entity as being fully identical with Brahman – the universal soul. The Advaita school believes that there is one soul that connects and exists in all living beings, regardless of their shapes or forms, and there is no distinction, no superior, no inferior, no separate devotee soul (Atman), no separate god soul (Brahman). The oneness unifies all beings, there is divine in every being, and that all existence is a single reality, state the Advaita Vedanta Hindus. In contrast, devotional sub-schools of Vedanta such as Dvaita (dualism) differentiate between the individual Atma in living beings, and the supreme Atma ( Paramatma ) as being separate.
Advaita Vedanta philosophy considers Atman as self-existent awareness, limitless and non-dual. To Advaitins, the Atman is the Brahman, the Brahman is the Atman, each self is non-different from the infinite. Atman is the universal principle, one eternal undifferentiated self-luminous consciousness, the truth asserts Advaita Hinduism. Human beings, in a state of unawareness of this universal self, see their "I-ness" as different than the being in others, then act out of impulse, fears, cravings, malice, division, confusion, anxiety, passions, and a sense of distinctiveness. To Advaitins, Atman-knowledge is the state of full awareness, liberation, and freedom that overcomes dualities at all levels, realizing the divine within oneself, the divine in others, and in all living beings; the non-dual oneness, that God is in everything, and everything is God. This identification of individual living beings/souls, or jiva-atmas, with the 'one Atman' is the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta position.
The monist , non-dual conception of existence in
not accepted by the dualistic/theistic
calls the Atman of a supreme being as "
Paramatman ", and holds it to
be different from individual Atman.
Dvaita scholars assert that God is
the ultimate, complete, perfect, but distinct soul, one that is
separate from incomplete, imperfect jivas (individual souls). The
Advaita sub-school believes that self-knowledge leads to liberation in
this life, while the
Dvaita sub-school believes that liberation is
only possible in after-life as communion with God, and only through
the grace of God (if not, then one's Atman is reborn). God created
individual souls, state
Dvaita Vedantins, but the individual soul
never was and never will become one with God; the best it can do is to
experience bliss by getting infinitely close to God. The Dvaita
school, therefore, in contrast to monistic position of Advaita,
advocates a version of monotheism wherein
Brahman is made synonymous
Ātman, in the ritualism-based Mīmāṃsā school of Hinduism, is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active essence that is identified as I-consciousness. Unlike all other schools of Hinduism, Mimamsaka scholars considered ego and Atman as the same. Within Mimamsa school, there was divergence of beliefs. Kumārila, for example, believed that Atman is the object of I-consciousness, whereas Prabhakara believed that Atman is the subject of I-consciousness. Mimamsaka Hindus believed that what matters is virtuous actions and rituals completed with perfection, and it is this that creates merit and imprints knowledge on Atman, whether one is aware or not aware of Atman. Their foremost emphasis was formulation and understanding of laws/duties/virtuous life (dharma ) and consequent perfect execution of kriyas (actions). The Upanishadic discussion of Atman, to them, was of secondary importance. While other schools disagreed and discarded the Atma theory of Mimamsa, they incorporated Mimamsa theories on ethics, self-discipline, action, and dharma as necessary in one's journey toward knowing one's Atman.
The Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, using its non-theistic theories of atomistic naturalism , posits that Ātman is one of the four eternal non-physical substances without attributes, the other three being kala (time), dik (space) and manas (mind). Time and space, stated Vaiśeṣika scholars, are eka (one), nitya (eternal) and vibhu (all pervading). Time and space are indivisible reality, but human mind prefers to divide them to comprehend past, present, future, relative place of other substances and beings, direction and its own coordinates in the universe. In contrast to these characteristics of time and space, Vaiśeṣika scholars considered Ātman to be many, eternal, independent and spiritual substances that cannot be reduced or inferred from other three non-physical and five physical dravya (substances). Mind and sensory organs are instruments, while consciousness is the domain of "atman, soul, self".
Early atheistic Nyaya scholars, and later theistic Nyaya scholars, both made substantial contributions to the systematic study of Ātman. They posited that even though "self/soul" is intimately related to the knower, it can still be the subject of knowledge. John Plott states that the Nyaya scholars developed a theory of negation that far exceeds Hegel 's theory of negation , while their epistemological theories refined to "know the knower" at least equals Aristotle's sophistication. Nyaya methodology influenced all major schools of Hinduism.
Nyaya scholars defined Ātman as an imperceptible substance that
is the substrate of human consciousness, manifesting itself with or
without qualities such as desires, feelings, perception, knowledge,
understanding, errors, insights, sufferings, bliss, and others.
Nyaya school not only developed its theory of Atman, it contributed to
Nyayasutra , a 2nd-century CE foundational text of Nyaya school of Hinduism, states that the soul is a proper object of human knowledge. It also states that soul is a real substance that can be inferred from certain signs, objectively perceivable attributes. For example, in book 1, chapter 1, verses 9 and 10, Nyayasutra states
Ātman, body, senses, objects of senses, intellect, mind, activity, error, pretyabhava (after life), fruit, suffering and bliss are the objects of right knowledge. Desire, aversion, effort, happiness, suffering and cognition are the Linga (लिङ्ग, mark, sign) of the Ātman. — Nyaya Sutra, I.1.9-10
In book 2, chapter 1, verses 1 to 23, Nyayasutras text posits that the sensory act of looking is different than perception and cognition, that perception and knowledge arise from the seekings and actions of Ātman (soul). Naiyayikas emphasize that Ātman has qualities, but is different than its qualities. For example, desire is one of many quality of Ātman in Nyaya school, but they state that Ātman need not always have desire, and in the state of liberation, for instance, Atman is without desire. Atman is the object, and the conventional "I, me" is one of its subjects, to Nyaya school.
The concept of Ātman in Samkhya , the oldest school of Hinduism, is quite similar to one in Advaita Vedanta school. Both Samkhya and Advaita consider the ego (asmita, ahamkara ) rather than the Ātman to be the cause of pleasure and pain. They both consider Ātman as self, soul that is innermost essence of any individual being. Further, they both consider self-knowledge as the means of liberation, freedom and bliss. The difference between Samkhya and Advaita is that Samkhya holds there are as many Atmans as there are beings, each distinct reality unto itself, and self-knowledge a state of Ipseity. In contrast, the monism theme of Advaita holds that there is one soul, and that the self of all beings are connected and unified with Brahman. The essence and spirit of everything is related to each self, asserts Advaita Vedanta, and each Atman is related to the essence and spirit of everything; all is one; self is Brahman and Brahman is self. Samkhya asserts that each being's Atman is unique and different.
The Yogasutra of Patanjali, the foundational text of
Avidya (अविद्या, ignorance) is regarding the transient as eternal, the impure as pure, the pain-giving as joy-giving, and the non-Atman as Atman. — Yogasutra 2.5
In verses 2.19-2.20, Yogasutra declares that pure ideas are the domain of the soul, the perceivable universe exists to enlighten the soul, but while the soul is pure, it may be deceived by complexities of perception or its intellect. These verses also set the purpose of all experience as a means to self-knowledge.
द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा
The seer (soul) is the absolute knower. Though pure, modifications are witnessed by him by coloring of intellect. The spectacle exists only to serve the purpose of the Atman. — Yogasutra 2.19 - 2.20
In Book 4, Yogasutra states spiritual liberation as the stage where the yogin achieves distinguishing self-knowledge, he no longer confuses his mind as his soul, the mind is no longer affected by afflictions or worries of any kind, ignorance vanishes, and "pure consciousness settles in its own pure nature".
INFLUENCE OF ATMAN THEORY ON HINDU ETHICS
The Atman theory in
Upanishads had a profound impact on ancient
ethical theories and dharma traditions now known as Hinduism. The
earliest Dharmasutras of Hindus recite Atman theory from the Vedic
texts and Upanishads, and on its foundation build precepts of dharma,
laws and ethics. Atman theory, particularly the
The Dharmasutras and Dharmasastras integrate the teachings of Atman
There is no higher object than the attainment of the KNOWLEDGE OF ATMAN. We shall quote the verses from the Veda which refer to the attainment of the knowledge of the Atman. All living creatures are the dwelling of him who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal, who is spotless. A wise man shall strive after the knowledge of the Atman. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures, whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchangeable, pure; he is the universe, he is the highest goal. – 188.8.131.52-7
Freedom from anger , from excitement, from rage, from greed , from
perplexity, from hypocrisy , from hurtfulness (from injury to others);
Speaking the truth, moderate eating , refraining from calumny and
envy, sharing with others , avoiding accepting gifts, uprightness,
forgiveness, gentleness, tranquility, temperance , amity with all
living creatures, yoga , honorable conduct, benevolence and
contentedness – These virtues have been agreed upon for all the
ashramas ; he who, according to the precepts of the sacred law,
practices these, becomes UNITED WITH THE UNIVERSAL SELF. – 184.108.40.206
— Knowledge of the Atman,
The ethical prohibition against harming any human beings or other
living creatures (Ahimsa, अहिंसा), in
यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मन्येवानुपश्यति । सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं ततो न विजुगुप्सते ॥६॥ यस्मिन्सर्वाणि भूतान्यात्मैवाभूद्विजानतः । तत्र को मोहः कः शोक एकत्वमनुपश्यतः ॥७॥ स पर्यगाच्छुक्रमकायमव्रणम् अस्नाविरँ शुद्धमपापविद्धम् । कविर्मनीषी परिभूः स्वयम्भूःयाथातथ्यतोऽर्थान् व्यदधाच्छाश्वतीभ्यः समाभ्यः ॥८॥
And he who sees everything in his atman, and his atman in everything, does not seek to hide himself from that. In whom all beings have become one with his own atman, what perplexity, what sorrow, is there when he sees this oneness? He prevades all, resplendent, bodiless, woundless, without muscles, pure, untouched by evil; far-seeing, transcendent, self-being, disposing ends through perpetual ages. — Isha Upanishad, Hymns 6-8,
ATMAN – THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM
All orthodox schools of Hinduism hold the premise, "Atman exists, as self evident truth". Buddhism, in contrast, holds the premise, "Atman does not exist (or, An-atman) as self evident".
Buddhists do not believe that at the core of all human beings and living creatures, there is any "eternal, essential and absolute something called a soul, self or atman". Buddhists reject the concept and all doctrines associated with atman, call atman as illusion (maya), asserting instead the theory of "no-self" and "no-soul". Buddhism, from its earliest days, has denied the existence of the "self, soul" in its core philosophical and ontological texts. In its soteriological themes, Buddhism has defined nirvana as that blissful state when a person realizes that he or she has "no self, no soul".
Hindus believe in Atman. They hold that at the core of all human beings and living creatures, there is "eternal, innermost essential and absolute something called a soul, self that is atman." Within the diverse schools of Hinduism , there are differences of opinion on whether souls are distinct, whether a supreme soul or god exists, whether the nature of Atman is dual or non-dual, how to reach moksha – the knowledge of self that liberates one to blissful content state of existence, and whether moksha is achievable in this life (Advaita Vedanta, Yoga) or is achievable only in after-life ( Dvaita Vedanta, Nyaya). However, despite these diversity of ideas and paths in different schools of Hinduism, unlike Buddhism, the foundation premise of Hinduism is that "soul/self exists", and there is bliss in seeking self, knowing self, and self-realization.
Upanishads recognized many things as being not-Self, they
felt that a real, true
In Theravada tradition, the Dhammakaya Movement in Thailand teaches that it is erroneous to subsume nirvana under the rubric of anatta (non-self); instead, nirvana is taught to be the "true self" or dhammakaya . Similar interpretations have been put forth by the then Thai Sangharaja in 1939. According to Williams, the Sangharaja's interpretation echoes the tathāgatagarbha sutras. The Dhammakaya Movement teaching that nirvana is atta (atman) in 1999, has been criticized as heretical in Buddhism by Ven. Payutto , a well-known scholar monk, who added that 'Buddha taught nibbana as being non-self". This dispute on the nature of teachings about 'self' and 'non-self' in Buddhism has led to arrest warrants, attacks and threats.
According to Johannes Bronkhorst, a professor of Indology specializing in early Buddhism and Hinduism, while there may be ambivalence on the existence or non-existence of self in early Buddhist literature, it is clear from these texts that seeking self-knowledge is not the Buddhist path for liberation, and turning away from self-knowledge is.
ATMAN JNANA AND KNOW THYSELF
The Atman concept and its discussions in
There is not what could be called a philosophical system in these Upanishads. They are, in the true sense of the word, guesses at truth, frequently contradicting each other, yet all tending in one direction. The key-note of the old Upanishads is "know thyself," but with a much deeper meaning than that of the γνῶθι σεαυτόν of the Delphic Oracle . The "know thyself" of the Upanishads means, know thy true self, that which underlines thine Ego, and find it and know it in the highest, the eternal Self, the One without a second, which underlies the whole world. — Max Müller
* ^ Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012),
QUOTE: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul";
John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World
Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947 , See entry
WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University
Press, ISBN 978-0198610250 , See entry for Atman (self). * ^ A B
David Lorenzen (2004), The
* ^ A B Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012),
QUOTE: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul";
John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World
Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947 , See entry
WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University
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(2011), The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths,
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* ^ Karel Werner (1998).
* ^ David Lorenzen (2004), The
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* ^ Source 1: Rig veda Sanskrit;
Source 2: ऋग्वेदः/संहिता Wikisource * ^ A
B PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State
University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394 , pages 35-36
* ^ "Soul" is synonymous with "self" in translations of ancient
* ^ A B C
* ^ Verses 4.24-4.34, Patanjali's Yogasutras; Quote:
* ^ Stephen H. Phillips, Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations
of Realism and the Emergence of "new Logic". Open Court Publishing,
1995, pages 12–13.
* ^ Stephen H. Phillips & other authors (2008), in Encyclopedia of
Jean Varenne (1977),
* ^ A B
* ^ Steven Collins (1990). Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in
Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN
978-0-521-39726-1 . ; QUOTE: "It is at this point that the differences
start to become marked. There is no central self which animates the
impersonal elements. The concept of nirvana (Pali nibbana), although
similarly the criterion according to which ethical judgements are made
and religious life assessed, is not the liberated state of a self.
Like all other things and concepts (dhamma) it is anatta, not-self .";
Norman C. McClelland (2010). Encyclopedia of Reincarnation and Karma.
McFarland. pp. 16–18. ISBN 978-0-7864-5675-8 . QUOTE:
"Anatman/Anatta. Literally meaning no (an-) self or soul (-atman),
this Buddhist term applies to the denial of a metaphysically
changeless, eternal and autonomous soul or self. (...) The early
canonical Buddhist view of nirvana sometimes suggests a kind of
extinction-like (kataleptic) state that automatically encourages a
metaphysical no-soul (self)." * ^ Sengaku Mayeda (2000), Sankara and
Buddhism, in New Perspectives on
Advaita Vedānta (Editors: Richard V.
De Smet, Bradley J. Malkovsky), Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004116665 ,
* ^ Peter Harvey (2012). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings,
History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN
* ^ Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal
Foundations. Routledge. pp. 104, 125–127. ISBN 978-1-134-25056-1 .
* ^ S. K. Hookham (1991). The Buddha Within: Tathagatagarbha
Doctrine According to the
* Mackenzie, Rory (2007), New Buddhist Movements in Thailand: Towards an Understanding of Wat Phra Dhammakaya and Santi Asoke, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-13262-1 * Williams, Paul (2008), Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations (2 ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-25056-1 * J. Ganeri (2013), The Concealed Art of the Soul, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199658596
* A. S. Woodburne (1925), The Idea of God in Hinduism, The Journal
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* K. L. Seshagiri Rao (1970), On Truth: A
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