The Info List - Öland

(Swedish pronunciation: [ˈøːland] ( listen), known in Latin
as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden. Öland
has an area of 1,342 square kilometres (518 square miles) and is located in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
just off the coast of Småland. The island has 26,000 inhabitants.[1] It is separated from the mainland by the Kalmar Strait
Kalmar Strait
and connected to it by the 6-km Öland
Bridge, which opened on 30 September 1972.


1 Administration 2 Heraldry 3 History 4 Geography

4.1 Cities and villages 4.2 Hundreds 4.3 Facts

5 Climate 6 Environment 7 Culture 8 Skördefest 9 Sports 10 See also

10.1 Battles

11 References 12 External links


Coat of arms and flag of Öland, used since 1555

The traditional provinces of Sweden
no longer serve administrative or political purposes but still exist as historical and cultural entities. Öland
is part of the administrative county of Kalmar County (Kalmar län) and consists of the two municipalities of Borgholm Municipality and Mörbylånga
Municipality. There was an Öland
County in the short period between 1819 and 1826; otherwise, the island has been part of Kalmar County
Kalmar County
since 1634.[citation needed] Heraldry[edit] Main article: Coat of arms of Öland Öland
was granted provincial arms in 1560, but it would not be until the 1940s that the province was assigned its proper ones. The arms granted to Öland
had been mixed up with the arms granted to Åland and this was not discovered until the 20th century. While Öland changed its coat of arms, Åland, which was now a Finnish (autonomous) province, kept its established but originally unintended coat of arms. The deer is meant to symbolize the status of Öland
as a royal game park and the arms are topped by a ducal crown. Blazon: "Azure a Deer Or attired, hoofed and gorged Gules."[citation needed] History[edit]

Iron Age
Iron Age
burial ground at Gettlinge

Archaeological evidence indicates the island of Öland
was settled about 8000 BC, with excavations dating from the Paleolithic
era showing the presence of hunter-gatherers.[2] In the early Stone Age, settlers from the mainland migrated across the ice bridge that connected the island across the Kalmar Strait. Evidence of habitation of Öland
occurred at least as early as 6000 BC, when there were stone age settlements at Alby and other locations on the island. Burial grounds from the Iron Age
Iron Age
through the Viking
Age are clearly visible at Gettlinge, Hulterstad
and other places on the perimeter ridge including stone ships. There are nineteen Iron Age ringforts identified on the island, only one of which, Eketorp, has been completely excavated, yielding over 24,000 artifacts. Around 900 AD, Wulfstan of Hedeby
Wulfstan of Hedeby
called the island "Eowland", the land of the Eowans:

Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth.[3]

However, this is not the first mention of the Eowans. There is an even earlier mention of the tribe in the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith:

Oswin ruled the Eowans and Gefwulf the Jutes, Finn Folcwalding The Frisian clan. Sigar longest ruled the sea-Danes

Scholars such as Schütte[4] and Kendrick[5] have pointed out that there was probably an even earlier mention of the people of Öland
in 98 AD, by Tacitus, who called them the "Aviones":

After the Langobardi come the Reudigni, Auiones, Angli, Varni, Eudoses, Suarines and Nuithones all well guarded by rivers and forests. There is nothing remarkable about any of these tribes unless the common worship of Nerthus, that is Earth Mother, is considered. They believed she was interested in men's affairs and walked among them. On an island in the ocean sea there is a sacred grove where a holy wagon covered by a drape awaits.[6]

In Swedish history, the island long served as a royal game park; Ottenby and Halltorps
were in particular selected by the Swedish Crown in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as royal game reserves.[citation needed] Geography[edit]

Map of Öland

Homrevet, Northern Öland

is the second largest of the islands of Sweden
and was historically divided into one chartered city and five hundreds.[citation needed] Cities and villages[edit]

Alby Bläsinge Borgholm
(1816) Gårdby Gettlinge Eriksöre Färjestaden Hulterstad Köpingsvik Mörbylånga Norra möckleby Ottenby Seby Segerstad Södra Sandby Stenåsa


Åkerbo Hundred Algutsrum Hundred Gräsgård Hundred Möckleby Hundred Runsten Hundred Slättbo Hundred


Highest Hill: Högsrum, 55 m (180 ft) Largest lake: Hornsjön[7] Length: 137 km (85 mi) Width (at widest point): 16 km (9.9 mi)

Climate[edit] Öland
has a semi-continental oceanic climate with vast temperature differences between summer and winter. There are two main weather stations, one located at the northern edge and the other at the southern edge. In spite of the more northerly latitude, Öland's northern edge is far milder than its southern edge, since air warm over greater surrounding landmasses during days, whilst retaining heavy maritime features during night. It is also more representative for the island's general climate, with only the deep south being much cooler down a narrow peninsula.

Climate data for Öland's Northern Edge, temperature 2002-2015, precipitation 1961-1990; extremes since 1901

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.7 (51.3) 13.0 (55.4) 17.3 (63.1) 23.3 (73.9) 26.4 (79.5) 32.0 (89.6) 31.0 (87.8) 31.0 (87.8) 26.6 (79.9) 22.1 (71.8) 14.0 (57.2) 11.8 (53.2) 32.0 (89.6)

Average high °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 2.0 (35.6) 4.9 (40.8) 9.2 (48.6) 14.2 (57.6) 19.5 (67.1) 22.5 (72.5) 21.8 (71.2) 17.7 (63.9) 11.4 (52.5) 7.2 (45) 4.0 (39.2) 11.3 (52.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 0.3 (32.5) 2.4 (36.3) 6.2 (43.2) 10.9 (51.6) 15.8 (60.4) 19.0 (66.2) 18.3 (64.9) 14.9 (58.8) 9.4 (48.9) 5.6 (42.1) 2.4 (36.3) 8.7 (47.7)

Average low °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) −1.4 (29.5) 0.0 (32) 3.2 (37.8) 7.5 (45.5) 12.0 (53.6) 15.5 (59.9) 14.8 (58.6) 12.1 (53.8) 7.3 (45.1) 4.0 (39.2) 0.8 (33.4) 6.2 (43.2)

Record low °C (°F) −24.5 (−12.1) −28.0 (−18.4) −25.2 (−13.4) −14.0 (6.8) −2.0 (28.4) 2.1 (35.8) 8.2 (46.8) 8.2 (46.8) 3.2 (37.8) −2.5 (27.5) −7.0 (19.4) −13.8 (7.2) −28.0 (−18.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.0 (1.26) 21.6 (0.85) 24.4 (0.961) 25.0 (0.984) 31.9 (1.256) 31.6 (1.244) 40.0 (1.575) 44.7 (1.76) 49.4 (1.945) 37.2 (1.465) 46.4 (1.827) 36.7 (1.445) 420.4 (16.551)

Source #1: [8]

Source #2: [9]

Climate data for Öland's Southern Edge (2002-2015; precipitation 1961-1990; extremes since 1937)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 8.3 (46.9) 12.6 (54.7) 16.3 (61.3) 21.2 (70.2) 25.7 (78.3) 28.7 (83.7) 27.9 (82.2) 26.5 (79.7) 17.5 (63.5) 13.3 (55.9) 10.5 (50.9) 28.7 (83.7)

Average high °C (°F) 2.2 (36) 1.8 (35.2) 3.8 (38.8) 7.5 (45.5) 12.0 (53.6) 15.7 (60.3) 19.4 (66.9) 19.8 (67.6) 16.0 (60.8) 11.1 (52) 7.4 (45.3) 4.3 (39.7) 10.0 (50)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7 (33.3) 0.3 (32.5) 2.0 (35.6) 5.3 (41.5) 9.8 (49.6) 13.6 (56.5) 17.1 (62.8) 17.5 (63.5) 13.8 (56.8) 9.3 (48.7) 5.9 (42.6) 2.5 (36.5) 8.1 (46.6)

Average low °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) −1.1 (30) 0.1 (32.2) 3.0 (37.4) 7.5 (45.5) 11.6 (52.9) 14.9 (58.8) 15.2 (59.4) 11.7 (53.1) 7.4 (45.3) 4.4 (39.9) 0.8 (33.4) 5.3 (41.5)

Record low °C (°F) −23.0 (−9.4) −20.4 (−4.7) −20.9 (−5.6) −8.7 (16.3) −1.3 (29.7) 2.8 (37) 7.9 (46.2) 6.4 (43.5) 2.5 (36.5) −4.2 (24.4) −9.2 (15.4) −15.9 (3.4) −23.0 (−9.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 39.9 (1.571) 28.2 (1.11) 28.3 (1.114) 28.2 (1.11) 31.6 (1.244) 33.2 (1.307) 45.7 (1.799) 49.8 (1.961) 47.8 (1.882) 41.5 (1.634) 52.3 (2.059) 45.2 (1.78) 471.9 (18.579)

Source #1: SMHI[10]

Source #2: SMHI Monthly Data 2002-2015[11]


Stora Alvaret
Stora Alvaret
on southeast of Öland
with Eketorp
Fortress in background

The dominant environmental feature of the island is the Stora Alvaret, a limestone pavement which is the habitat of numerous rare and endangered species. The first known scientific study of the biota of the Stora Alvaret
Stora Alvaret
occurred in the year 1741 with the visit of Linnaeus.[12][13] The underlying bedrock layer is mainly Cambrian sandstone and alum chert, and Ordovician
limestone that dates from an approximate range of 540 to 450 million years ago. The Cambrian trilobite Eccaparadoxides oelandicus is named after the island.[14] Öland
is served by a perimeter highway, Route 136. In 2011 the Gripen Gas company filed a request for test drilling on Öland
for natural gas. The request was approved by Bergsstaten, the governmental agency responsible for handling geological issues regarding prospecting. The approval has been met with criticism on the municipal and county administrative levels, citing that the many cracks in the limestone bedrock could cause the groundwater to become contaminated by the gas prospecting.[15] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Öland The Borgholm
Castle was built between 1669 and 1681 for Queen Hedvig Eleonora, and designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. In its vicinity sits the Solliden Palace, summer home to the royal family. The limestone pavement habitat of southern Öland, known as Stora Alvaret, has been entered as a site of the UNESCO
World Heritage program.[16] Features of this are the many rare species found; prehistory sites such as Gettlinge
and Eketorp; numerous old wooden windmills left standing, some of which date to the 17th century; and the special geological alvar landscape. For a decade, Öland
has been organizing an annual harvest festival called Skördefesten that takes place every October. In terms of this event, the island's farmers gather with farmers from the rest of the country and sell their crops and let those that are interested take part in everyday life on their farms, among other activities. There are also many art exhibitions for display during Skördefesten especially during the art night Konstnatten. The romantic poet Erik Johan Stagnelius was born in the Öland
parish of Gärdslösa in 1793 and lived there until 16 years of age. He wrote several poems about the island. More modern writers living on or writing about Öland
include novelist Margit Friberg (1904–1997), poet Anna Rydstedt (1928–1994), novelist Birgitta Trotzig (1929-2011), poet Lennart Sjögren (1930-), children novelist Eva Bexell (1945-), poet Tom Hedlund (1945-), novelist Johan Theorin (1963-), poet and novelist Magnus Utvik (1964-) and novelist Per Planhammar (1965-).[citation needed] Skördefest[edit] Skördefest is an annual harvest festival on Öland, held every September, which attracts thousands of visitors. Pumpkins are placed upon the top of bales of hay, a signal to buyers that fall harvest goods are available for sale at the location. In Borgholm, a pumpagubbe (pumpkin man), a large scarecrow like figure, built entirely of gourds, is erected at town center. The pumpagubbe celebrates the bounty of the Fall Harvest.[citation needed] Sports[edit] Football in the province is administered by Smålands Fotbollförbund. Each year the King's Rally, a vintage motorcade, takes place in Öland.[17] See also[edit]

Alby, Öland Gettlinge Halltorps List of places on Öland Northern Europe Ottenby Sandby borg, a site where a ringfort and Roman artifacts have been found Scandinavia Viking


Battle of Öland
Battle of Öland
(1563) First battle of Öland
(1564) Battle of Öland
Battle of Öland
(1676) Battle of Öland
Battle of Öland


^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.  ^ C. M. Hogan, The Stora Alvaret
Stora Alvaret
of Öland, Lumina Technologies, Aberdeen Library Archives, 9 July 2006 ^ https://www.gutenberg.org/etext/4076 ^ http://www.northvegr.org/lore/sagabook/n002.php ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 September 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2005.  ^ Tacitus, Germania. ^ "Korta fakta om Öland" [Short facts about Öland] (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2013. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Monthly & Yearly Statistics". SMHI. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ " Precipitation
normals 1961-1990 (Ölands norra udde code 7722)". SMHI. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ " Precipitation
Normals 1961-1990 (Swedish)" (in Swedish). Swedish Metereological and Hydrological Institute (Ölands södra udde code 6612).  ^ "Monthly and Yearly Statistics (Swedish)" (in Swedish). SMHI. March 28, 2016.  ^ Carolus Linnaeus, Species Plantarum, Uppsala, Sweden
(1753) ^ L.K. Königsson, The Holocene
History of the Great Alvar
of Öland, Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 55, Uppsala
(1968) ^ "Stenar och fossil", Per H Lundegårdh, Krister Brood, ISBN 91-518-3441-3, page 292. ^ d ^ Hakan Sandbring and Martin Borg, Oland: Island of Stone and Green, May 1997 ^ "The King and Queen take part in the King's Rally". Swedish Royal House. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Öland.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Öland.

 "Öland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 63.   "Öland". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  Increasing Mobility at the Neolithic/Bronze Age Transition - sulphur isotope evidence from Öland, Sweden World Heritage
World Heritage

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244110398 GN

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