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"Öküz" Mehmed Pasha ("Mehmed Pasha the Ox"; died 23 December 1619), also known as Kara Mehmed Pasha ("the Black") or "Kul Kıran" Mehmed Pasha ("the Slavebreaker"),[1] was an Ottoman statesman and military commander of the early 17th century who held the office of Grand Vizier twice, the first time from 17 October 1614 to 17 November 1616 (during the reign of Ahmed I) and the second time from 18 January 1619 to 23 December 1619 (during the reign of Osman II the Young).[2] He was also governor of Egypt from 1607 to 1611.[1][3][4][5][6]

Contents

1 Background 2 Governor of Egypt 3 Grand Vizierates 4 Governor of Aidin 5 Death 6 See also 7 References

Background[edit] Before holding governmental positions, Mehmed Pasha had been a silahdar, a high-ranking position in the sultan's guard.[3] He married princess Gevherhan Sultan, the daughter of sultan Ahmed I and Kösem Sultan.[4] Governor of Egypt[edit] Before his first term as grand vizier, Mehmed Pasha was appointed as governor of Egypt in 1607, a post he held until 1611.[1][3][4][5][6] In 1604, three years before he assumed the office, the Governor of Ottoman Egypt Maktul Hacı Ibrahim Pasha was murdered by mutinying sipahi soldiers of his own troops.[7][8][9] This event caused three years of instability in Egypt, with the subsequent two governors, Hadım Mehmed Pasha and Yemenli Hasan Pasha unable to completely quell the rebellion. When Mehmed Pasha came into office, his strong-handed methods and personality allowed him to suppress the sipahis and abolish the illegal tulba protection tax they had been imposing on the Egyptian countryside.[3] After first landing at Alexandria, he gathered public support by visiting the tombs of local saints and treating the Mamluks well, ordering repairs on Mamluk-built buildings and structures.[3] He then proceeded to execute district governors who had allowed the sipahis to impose the tulba and warned others of the same fate.[3] Tensions came to a head in February 1609, when the rebels gathered in the city of Tanta and met at the tomb of Ahmad al-Badawi, Egypt's most popular saint, to swear that they would resist Mehmed Pasha's efforts; they then began to gather troops and pillage villages for supplies.[3] Mehmed Pasha also gathered troops, although some of his officers suggested diplomacy, which Mehmed agreed to, sending a mufti named Altıparmak Mehmed Efendi and an officer to negotiate with the rebels.[10] The mufti advised the rebels to give into "those in authority," and upon refusal, Mehmed Pasha's forces began to mobilize.[10] Mehmed Pasha's forces met the rebels just north of Cairo. The rebels, discouraged, lost the battle, and the pasha's forces summarily executed over 250 of them, while others were later exiled to Yemen.[10] In the aftermath of this event, Mehmed Pasha became known as Kul Kıran ("slavebreaker" in Turkish) for subjugating the Mamluks and the soldiers to Ottoman rule. He went on to promote public works and attempted to reform the fiscal and military organization of the Egypt eyalet, reducing the number of local beys to 12,[10] although this measure was later abandoned.[5] In 1611, he was recalled to the capital Constantinople by the sultan.[10] Grand Vizierates[edit] Mehmed Pasha was grand vizier from 17 October 1614 to 17 November 1616, and again from 18 January 1619 to 23 December 1619. While in office, he was usually called Kara Mehmed Pasha, the nickname "ox" having been invented behind his back (although he almost certainly must have overheard it) by virtue of his heavy build and his father having been a blacksmith for cattle in the Karagümrük quarter of Constantinople. History retained this nickname rather than Kara, which means "black" in Turkish and which may refer to one's complexion or hair or, in the figurative, to courage and daring. One episode during his time as grand vizier involved an attack on Vienna accompanied with only 47 raiders, and without having informed the sultan or any other authority in the Ottoman capital; it ended in complete failure and nearly cost him his head. Some historians consider his foray as a third siege of Vienna by the Ottoman Turks, alongside the better known incidences, undertaken first by sultan Süleyman the Magnificent in 1529 and later by grand vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha in 1683. Governor of Aidin[edit]

Öküz Mehmed Pasha Caravanserai in Kuşadası.

In between his two terms as grand vizier, he held the office of governor of Aidin Vilayet (then a province covering a large part of western Anatolia), and his governorship is marked by the construction of a caravanserai in Kuşadası, named the Öküz Mehmed Pasha Caravanserai after him, aimed at attracting international trade through the port there (which shifted, in time, much more towards the port of İzmir upon the preference displayed by European merchants). The caravanserai in Kuşadası is used as a luxury hotel and shopping center today. He has had another solid caravanserai built in Ulukışla on the way to a campaign against the Safavids during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18), which eventually ended with a decisive Ottoman defeat.[11] Death[edit] He was strangled to death in office in 1619 by a young Janissary whose favors he had sought. See also[edit]

List of Ottoman Grand Viziers List of Ottoman governors of Egypt Öküz Mehmed Pasha Caravanserai

References[edit]

^ a b c Jane Hathaway; Karl K. Barbir (2008). The Arab lands under Ottoman rule, 1516-1800. Pearson Longman. pp. 63, 255. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8.  ^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971 (Turkish) ^ a b c d e f g M. W. Daly; Carl F. Petry (10 December 1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-521-47211-1.  ^ a b c A. Zuhuri Danışman (1965). Osmanlı İmparatorluğu tarihi. Z. Danışman Yayınevi. p. 243.  ^ a b c Michael Winter (14 January 2004). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-203-16923-0.  ^ a b Turkish Studies Association (2000). Turkish Studies Association Bulletin. Turkish Studies Association. pp. 93, 95.  ^ Michael Winter (14 January 2004). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798. Taylor & Francis. pp. 45, 96. ISBN 978-0-203-16923-0.  ^ M. W. Daly; Carl F. Petry (10 December 1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-47211-1.  ^ Michael A. Cook; Asad Ahmed; Behnam Sadeghi; Michael Bonner (21 March 2011). The Islamic Scholarly Tradition: Studies in History, Law, and Thought in Honor of Professor Michael Allan Cook. BRILL. p. 154. ISBN 978-90-04-19435-9.  ^ a b c d e M. W. Daly; Carl F. Petry (10 December 1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-521-47211-1.  ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi vol.III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, 43-44

Political offices

Preceded by Yemenli Hasan Pasha Ottoman Governor of Egypt 1607–1611 Succeeded by Sofu Mehmed Pasha

Preceded by Nasuh Pasha Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire 17 October 1614 – 17 November 1616 Succeeded by Damat Halil Pasha

Preceded by Damat Halil Pasha Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire 18 January 1619 – 23 December 1619 Succeeded by Güzelce Ali Pasha

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Rise (1299–1453)

Hacıkemaleddinoğlu Alaeddin Pasha (1320–1331) Mahmudoğlu Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha (1331–1348) Hacı Pasha (1348–1349) Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha (1349–1364) Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder (1364–1387) Çandarlı Ali Pasha (1387–1406) Osmancıklı Imamzade Halil Pasha (1406–1413) Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha (1413–1421) Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder (1421–1429) Osmancıklı Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha (1429–1439) Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger (1439–1453)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Classical Age (1453–1550)

Zagan Pasha (1453–1456) Veli Mahmud Pasha (1456–1466) Rum Mehmed Pasha (1466–1469) Ishak Pasha (1469–1472) Veli Mahmud Pasha (1472–1474) Gedik Ahmed Pasha (1474–1477) Karamani Mehmed Pasha (1477–1481) Ishak Pasha (1481–1482) Koca Davud Pasha (1482–1497) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1497–1498) Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger (1498–1499) Yakub Pasha (1499–1501) Mesih Pasha (1501) Hadim Ali Pasha (1501–1503) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1503–1506) Hadim Ali Pasha (1509–1511) Koca Mustafa Pasha (1511–1512) Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha (1512–1515) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1515–1516) Hadım Sinan Pasha (1516–1517) Yunus Pasha (1517) Piri Mehmed Pasha (1517–1523) Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha (1523–1536) Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1536–1539) Lütfi Pasha (1539–1541) Hadım Suleiman Pasha (1541–1544) Rüstem Pasha (1544–1553)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Transformation (1550–1700)

Kara Ahmed Pasha (1553–1555) Rüstem Pasha (1555–1561) Semiz Ali Pasha (1561–1565) Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (1565–1579) Şemsi Pasha (1579–1580) Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha (1580) Koca Sinan Pasha (1580–1582) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1582–1584) Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha (1584–1585) Hadim Mesih Pasha (1585–1586) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1586–1589) Koca Sinan Pasha (1589–1591) Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1591–1592) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1592–1593) Koca Sinan Pasha (1593–1595) Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1595) Lala Mehmed Pasha (1595) Koca Sinan Pasha (1595–1596) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha (1596) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596–1597) Hadım Hasan Pasha (1597–1598) Cerrah Mehmed Pasha (1598–1599) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1599–1601) Yemişçi Hasan Pasha (1601–1603) Yavuz Ali Pasha (1603–1604) Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha (1604–1606) Boşnak Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1606) Kuyucu Murad Pasha (1606–1611) Nasuh Pasha (1611–1614) Öküz Mehmed Pasha (1614–1616) Damat Halil Pasha (1616–1619) Öküz Mehmed Pasha (1619–1619) Güzelce Ali Pasha (1619–1621) Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha (1621) Dilaver Pasha (1621–1622) Kara Davud Pasha (1622) Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1622) Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha (1622) Gürcü Hadım Mehmed Pasha (1622–1623) Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1623) Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha (1623–1624) Çerkes Mehmed Pasha (1624–1625) Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1625–1626) Damat Halil Pasha (1626–1628) Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha (1628–1631) Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1631–1632) Topal Recep Pasha (1632) Tabanıyassı Mehmed Pasha (1632–1637) Bayram Pasha (1637–1638) Tayyar Mehmed Pasha (1638) Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha (1638–1644) Civankapıcıbaşı Sultanzade Semiz Mehmed Pasha (1644–1645) Nevesinli Salih Pasha (1645–1647) Kara Musa Pasha (1647) Hezarpare Ahmed Pasha (1647–1648) Sofu Mehmed Pasha (1648–1649) Kara Murat Pasha (1649–1650) Melek Ahmed Pasha (1650–1651) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1651) Gürcü Mehmed Pasha (1651–1652) Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha (1652–1653) Bıyıklı Koca Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1653–1654) Ibşir Mustafa Pasha (1654–1655) Kara Dev Murad Pasha (1655) Ermeni Süleyman Pasha (1655) Gazi Hüseyin Pasha (1656) Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (1656) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1656) Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha (1656) Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (1656–1661) Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (1661–1676) Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1676–1683) Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha (1683–1685) Sarı Süleyman Pasha (1685–1687) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha II (1687–1688) Ayaşlı Ismail Pasha (1688) Tekirdağlı Bekri Mustafa Pasha (1688–1689) Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (1689–1691) Bahadırzade Arabacı Ali Pasha (1691–1692) Merzifonlu Çalık Hacı Ali Pasha (1692–1693) Bozoklu (Bıyıklı) Mustafa Pasha (1694) Sürmeli Ali Pasha (1694–1695) Elmas Mehmed Pasha (1695–1697) Köprülü Amcazade Hacı Hüseyin Pasha (1697–1702)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Old Regime (1700–1789)

Daltaban Mustafa Pasha (1702–1703) Rami Mehmed Pasha (1703) Sührablı Kavanoz Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1703) Damat Hasan Pasha (1703–1704) Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha (1704) Baltacı Mehmet Pasha (1704–1706) Çorlulu Ali Pasha (1706–1710) Köprülü Numan Pasha (1710) Baltacı Mehmet Pasha (1710–1711) Gürcü Ağa Yusuf Pasha (1711–1712) Silahdar Süleyman Pasha (1712–1713) Kel Hoca Ibrahim Pasha (1713) Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha (1713–1716) Hacı Halil Pasha (1716–1717) Tevkii Nişancı Mehmed Pasha (1717–1718) Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1718–1730) Silahdar Damat Mehmet Pasha (1730–1731) Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha (1731) Topal Osman Pasha (1731–1732) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1732–1735) Gürcü Ismail Pasha (1735–1736) Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1736–1737) Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha (1737) Yeğen Mehmed Pasha (1737–1739) Ivaz Mehmed Pasha (1739–1740) Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1740–1742) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1742–1743) Seyyid Hasan Pasha (1743–1746) Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1746–1747) Seyyid Abdullah Pasha (1747–1750) Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha (1750–1752) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1752–1755) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1755) Naili Abdullah Pasha (1755) Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha (1755) Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha (1755–1756) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1756–1757) Koca Ragıp Pasha (1757–1763) Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha (1763) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1763–1765) Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1765–1768) Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha (1768) Yağlıkçızade Nişancı Hacı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1768–1769) Moldovancı Ali Pasha (1769) Ivazzade Halil Pasha (1769–1770) Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (1770–1771) Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1771–1774) Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1774–1775) Moralı Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1775–1777) Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha (1777–1778) Kalafat Mehmed Pasha (1778–1779) Silahdar Karavezir Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1779–1781) Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1781–1782) Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1782) Halil Hamid Pasha (1782–1785) Hazinedar Şahin Ali Pasha (1785–1786) Koca Yusuf Pasha (1786–1789) Kethüda Meyyit Hasan Pasha (1789)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Decline and Modernization (1789–1922)

Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (1789–1790) Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha (1790–1791) Koca Yusuf Pasha (1791–1792) Melek Mehmed Pasha (1792–1794) Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha (1794–1798) Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1798–1805) Hafiz Ismail Pasha (1805–1806) Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha (1806–1807) Çelebi Mustafa Pasha (1807–1808) Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (1808) Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha (1808–1809) Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1809–1811) Laz Aziz Ahmed Pasha (1811–1812) Hurshid Pasha (1812–1815) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1815–1818) Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1818–1820) Seyyid Ali Pasha (1820–1821) Benderli Ali Pasha (1821) Hacı Salih Pasha (1821–1822) Deli Abdullah Pasha (1822–1823) Silahdar Ali Pasha (1823) Mehmed Said Galip Pasha (1823–1824) Mehmed Selim Pasha (1824–1828) Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1828–1829) Reşid Mehmed Pasha (1829–1833) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1833–1839) Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha (1839–1840) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1840–1841) Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1841–1842) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1842–1846) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1846–1848) Ibrahim Sarim Pasha (1848) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1848–1852) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1852) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1852) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1852) Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha (1852–1853) Mustafa Naili Pasha (1853–1854) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1854) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1854–1855) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1855–1856) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1856–1857) Mustafa Naili Pasha (1857) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1857–1858) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1858–1859) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1859) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1859–1860) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1860–1861) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1861) Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1861–1866) Yusuf Kamil Pasha (1863) Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1863–1866) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1866–1867) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1866–1871) Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1871–1872) Midhat Pasha (1872) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1872–1873) Ahmed Esad Pasha (1873) Şirvanlızade Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1873–1874) Hüseyin Avni Pasha (1874–1875) Ahmed Esad Pasha (1875) Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1875–1876) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1876–1876) Midhat Pasha (1876–1877) Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1877–1878) Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (1878) Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1878) Mehmed Sadık Pasha (1878) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1878) Saffet Pasha (1878) Hayreddin Pasha (1878–1879) Ahmed Arifi Pasha (1879) Mehmed Said Pasha (1879–1880) Kadri Pasha (1880) Mehmed Said Pasha (1880–1882) Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha (1882) Mehmed Said Pasha (1882) Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1882) Mehmed Said Pasha (1882–1885) Kâmil Pasha (1885–1891) Ahmed Cevad Pasha (1891–1895) Mehmed Said Pasha (1895) Kâmil Pasha (1895) Halil Rifat Pasha (1895–1901) Mehmed Said Pasha (1901–1903) Mehmed Ferid Pasha (1903–1908) Mehmed Said Pasha (1908) Kâmil Pasha (1908–1909) Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1909) Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909–1910) Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (1910–1911) Mehmed Said Pasha (1911–1912) Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (1912) Kâmil Pasha (1912–1913) Mahmud Shevket Pasha (1913) Said Halim Pasha (1913–1917) Mehmed Talat Pasha (1917–1918) Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1918) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1918–1919) Damat Ferid Pasha (1919) Ali Rıza Pasha (1919–1920) Salih Hulusi Pasha (1920) Damat Ferid Pasha (1920) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (

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