Édouard Manet (US: /mæˈneɪ/ or UK: /ˈmæneɪ/;
French: [edwaʁ manɛ]; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a
French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint
modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to
Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections,
Manet rejected the future originally envisioned for him, and became
engrossed in the world of painting. His early masterworks, The
Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both
1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the
young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are
considered watershed paintings that mark the start of modern art. The
last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with other great
artists of the time, and develop his own style that would be heralded
as innovative and serve as a major influence for future painters.
1 Early life
2.1 Music in the Tuileries
2.2 Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe)
2.4 Life and times
2.5 Cafe scenes
2.6 Paintings of social activities
2.9 Late works
4.1 Art market
6 See also
7.1 Further reading
8 External links
Manet's portrait painted by Fantin-Latour
Édouard Manet was born in
Paris on 23 January 1832, in the ancestral
hôtel particulier (mansion) on the rue des Petits Augustins (now rue
Bonaparte) to an affluent and well-connected family. His mother,
Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and
goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince Charles Bernadotte, from whom
the Swedish monarchs are descended. His father, Auguste Manet, was a
French judge who expected Édouard to pursue a career in law. His
uncle, Edmond Fournier, encouraged him to pursue painting and took
young Manet to the Louvre. In 1841 he enrolled at secondary school,
the Collège Rollin. In 1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet
enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust,
future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent lifelong friend.
At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to
Rio de Janeiro. After he twice failed the examination to join the
Navy, his father relented to his wishes to pursue an art education.
From 1850 to 1856, Manet studied under the academic painter Thomas
Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the Old Masters in the
From 1853 to 1856, Manet visited Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands,
during which time he was influenced by the Dutch painter Frans Hals,
and the Spanish artists
Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya.
In 1856, Manet opened a studio. His style in this period was
characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details and
the suppression of transitional tones. Adopting the current style of
realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker
(1858–59) and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, singers,
Gypsies, people in cafés, and bullfights. After his early career, he
rarely painted religious, mythological, or historical subjects;
examples include his Christ Mocked, now in the Art Institute of
Chicago, and Christ with Angels, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York. Manet had two canvases accepted at the Salon in 1861. A
portrait of his mother and father, who at the time was paralysed and
robbed of speech by a stroke, was ill-received by critics. The other,
The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier, and placed in a
more conspicuous location as a result of its popularity with
Salon-goers. Manet's work, which appeared "slightly slapdash" when
compared with the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings,
intrigued some young artists. The Spanish Singer, painted in a
"strange new fashion [-] caused many painters' eyes to open and their
jaws to drop."
Music in the Tuileries
Main article: Music in the Tuileries
Music in the Tuileries, 1862
Music in the Tuileries
Music in the Tuileries is an early example of Manet's painterly style.
Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his lifelong
interest in the subject of leisure.
While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some, the suggested
atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at
the time; one may imagine the music and conversation.
Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists, authors, and musicians
who take part, and he has included a self-portrait among the subjects.
Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe)
Main article: Le déjeuner sur l'herbe
The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863
A major early work is
The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur
l'herbe), originally Le Bain. The
Paris Salon rejected it for
exhibition in 1863, but Manet agreed to exhibit it at the Salon des
Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) which was a parallel exhibition to
the official Salon, as an alternative exhibition in the Palais des
Salon des Refusés
Salon des Refusés was initiated by Emperor
Napoleon III as a solution to a problematic situation which came about
as the Selection Committee of the Salon that year rejected 2,783
paintings of the ca. 5000. Each painter could decide whether to take
the opportunity to exhibit at the Salon des Refusés, less than 500 of
the rejected painters chose to do so.
Manet employed model Victorine Meurent, his wife Suzanne, future
brother-in-law Ferdinand Leenhoff, and one of his brothers to pose.
Meurent also posed for several more of Manet's important paintings
including Olympia; and by the mid-1870s she became an accomplished
painter in her own right.
The painting's juxtaposition of fully dressed men and a nude woman was
controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an
innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time,
Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the
disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's
engraving of the Judgement of
Paris (c. 1515) based on a drawing by
Two additional works cited by scholars as important precedents for Le
déjeuner sur l'herbe are
Pastoral Concert (c. 1510, The Louvre) and
The Tempest (Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice), both of which are
attributed variously to Italian
Titian. The Tempest is an enigmatic painting featuring a fully
dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing
to the left and gazing to the side, apparently at the woman, who is
seated and breastfeeding a baby; the relationship between the two
figures is unclear. In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men and a nude
woman are seated on the grass, engaged in music making, while a second
nude woman stands beside them.
Main article: Olympia (Manet)
As he had in Luncheon on the Grass, Manet again paraphrased a
respected work by a
Renaissance artist in the painting Olympia (1863),
a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of early studio photographs,
but whose pose was based on Titian's
Venus of Urbino
Venus of Urbino (1538). The
painting is also reminiscent of Francisco Goya's painting The Nude
Manet embarked on the canvas after being challenged to give the Salon
a nude painting to display. His uniquely frank depiction of a
self-assured prostitute was accepted by the
Paris Salon in 1865, where
it created a scandal. According to Antonin Proust, "only the
precautions taken by the administration prevented the painting being
punctured and torn" by offended viewers. The painting was
controversial partly because the nude is wearing some small items of
clothing such as an orchid in her hair, a bracelet, a ribbon around
her neck, and mule slippers, all of which accentuated her nakedness,
sexuality, and comfortable courtesan lifestyle. The orchid, upswept
hair, black cat, and bouquet of flowers were all recognized symbols of
sexuality at the time. This modern Venus' body is thin, counter to
prevailing standards; the painting's lack of idealism rankled viewers.
The painting's flatness, inspired by Japanese wood block art, serves
to make the nude more human and less voluptuous. A fully dressed black
servant is featured, exploiting the then-current theory that black
people were hyper-sexed. That she is wearing the clothing of a
servant to a courtesan here furthers the sexual tension of the piece.
Olympia's body as well as her gaze is unabashedly confrontational. She
defiantly looks out as her servant offers flowers from one of her male
suitors. Although her hand rests on her leg, hiding her pubic area,
the reference to traditional female virtue is ironic; a notion of
modesty is notoriously absent in this work. A contemporary critic
denounced Olympia's "shamelessly flexed" left hand, which seemed to
him a mockery of the relaxed, shielding hand of Titian's Venus.
Likewise, the alert black cat at the foot of the bed strikes a
sexually rebellious note in contrast to that of the sleeping dog in
Titian's portrayal of the goddess in his Venus of Urbino.
Olympia was the subject of caricatures in the popular press, but was
championed by the French avant-garde community, and the painting's
significance was appreciated by artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul
Cézanne, Claude Monet, and later Paul Gauguin.
As with Luncheon on the Grass, the painting raised the issue of
prostitution within contemporary France and the roles of women within
Life and times
Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets, 1872
After the death of his father in 1862, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff
in 1863. Leenhoff was a Dutch-born piano teacher two years Manet's
senior with whom he had been romantically involved for approximately
ten years. Leenhoff initially had been employed by Manet's father,
Auguste, to teach Manet and his younger brother piano. She also may
have been Auguste's mistress. In 1852, Leenhoff gave birth, out of
wedlock, to a son, Leon Koella Leenhoff. Manet painted his wife in The
Reading, among other paintings.
Eleven-year-old Leon Leenhoff, whose father may have been either of
the Manets, posed often for Manet. Most famously, he is the subject of
Boy Carrying a Sword
Boy Carrying a Sword of 1861 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York). He also appears as the boy carrying a tray in the background of
He became friends with the Impressionists Edgar Degas, Claude Monet,
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley,
Paul Cézanne and Camille
Pissarro through another painter, Berthe Morisot, who was a member of
the group and drew him into their activities. The grand niece of the
painter Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Morisot had her first painting
accepted in the Salon de
Paris in 1864, and she continued to show in
the salon for the next ten years.
Manet became the friend and colleague of
Berthe Morisot in 1868. She
is credited with convincing Manet to attempt plein air painting, which
she had been practicing since she was introduced to it by another
friend of hers, Camille Corot. They had a reciprocating relationship
and Manet incorporated some of her techniques into his paintings. In
1874, she became his sister-in-law when she married his brother,
Self-Portrait with Palette, 1879
One of Manet's frequent models, especially at the beginning of the
1880s, was the "semimondaine" Méry Laurent, who frequently sat for
various other Impressionists.
Unlike the core Impressionist group, Manet maintained that modern
artists should seek to exhibit at the
Paris Salon rather than abandon
it in favor of independent exhibitions. Nevertheless, when Manet was
excluded from the International Exhibition of 1867, he set up his own
exhibition. His mother worried that he would waste all his inheritance
on this project, which was enormously expensive. While the exhibition
earned poor reviews from the major critics, it also provided his first
contacts with several future Impressionist painters, including Degas.
Although his own work influenced and anticipated the Impressionist
style, he resisted involvement in Impressionist exhibitions, partly
because he did not wish to be seen as the representative of a group
identity, and partly because he preferred to exhibit at the Salon. Eva
Gonzalès, a daughter of the novelist Emmanuel Gonzalès, was his only
He was influenced by the Impressionists, especially Monet and Morisot.
Their influence is seen in Manet's use of lighter colors: after the
early 1870s he made less use of dark backgrounds but retained his
distinctive use of black, uncharacteristic of Impressionist painting.
He painted many outdoor (plein air) pieces, but always returned to
what he considered the serious work of the studio.
Manet enjoyed a close friendship with composer Emmanuel Chabrier,
painting two portraits of him; the musician owned 14 of Manet's
paintings and dedicated his Impromptu to Manet's wife.
Throughout his life, although resisted by art critics, Manet could
number as his champions Émile Zola, who supported him publicly in the
press, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire, who challenged him
to depict life as it was. Manet, in turn, drew or painted each of
The Cafe Concert, 1878. Scene set in the Cabaret de Reichshoffen on
the Boulevard Rochechouart, where women on the fringes of society
freely intermingled with well-heeled gentlemen. The Walters Art
Manet's paintings of café scenes are observations of social life in
19th-century Paris. People are depicted drinking beer, listening to
music, flirting, reading, or waiting. Many of these paintings were
based on sketches executed on the spot. He often visited the Brasserie
Reichshoffen on boulevard de Rochechourt, upon which he based At the
Cafe in 1878. Several people are at the bar, and one woman confronts
the viewer while others wait to be served. Such depictions represent
the painted journal of a flâneur. These are painted in a style which
is loose, referencing Hals and Velázquez, yet they capture the mood
and feeling of Parisian night life. They are painted snapshots of
bohemianism, urban working people, as well as some of the bourgeoisie.
In Corner of a Cafe Concert, a man smokes while behind him a waitress
serves drinks. In The Beer Drinkers a woman enjoys her beer in the
company of a friend. In The Cafe Concert, shown at right, a
sophisticated gentleman sits at a bar while a waitress stands
resolutely in the background, sipping her drink. In The Waitress, a
serving woman pauses for a moment behind a seated customer smoking a
pipe, while a ballet dancer, with arms extended as she is about to
turn, is on stage in the background.
Manet also sat at the restaurant on the Avenue de Clichy called Pere
Lathuille's, which had a garden in addition to the dining area. One of
the paintings he produced here was Chez le père Lathuille (At Pere
Lathuille's), in which a man displays an unrequited interest in a
woman dining near him.
In Le Bon Bock (1873), a large, cheerful, bearded man sits with a pipe
in one hand and a glass of beer in the other, looking straight at the
Paintings of social activities
The Races at Longchamp, 1864
Manet painted the upper class enjoying more formal social activities.
In Masked Ball at the Opera, Manet shows a lively crowd of people
enjoying a party. Men stand with top hats and long black suits while
talking to women with masks and costumes. He included portraits of his
friends in this picture.
His 1868 painting
The Luncheon was posed in the dining room of the
Manet depicted other popular activities in his work. In The Races at
Longchamp, an unusual perspective is employed to underscore the
furious energy of racehorses as they rush toward the viewer. In
Skating, Manet shows a well dressed woman in the foreground, while
others skate behind her. Always there is the sense of active urban
life continuing behind the subject, extending outside the frame of the
In View of the International Exhibition, soldiers relax, seated and
standing, prosperous couples are talking. There is a gardener, a boy
with a dog, a woman on horseback—in short, a sample of the classes
and ages of the people of Paris.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1867. Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston. The least finished of three large canvases devoted to the
execution of Maximilian I of Mexico.
The Barricade (Civil War), 1871, ink, watercolor, and gouache on
paper, Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest)
Manet's response to modern life included works devoted to war, in
subjects that may be seen as updated interpretations of the genre of
"history painting". The first such work was the Battle of the
Kearsarge and Alabama (1864), a sea skirmish known as the Battle of
Cherbourg from the
American Civil War
American Civil War which took place off the French
coast, and may have been witnessed by the artist.
Of interest next was the French intervention in Mexico; from 1867 to
1869 Manet painted three versions of the Execution of Emperor
Maximilian, an event which raised concerns regarding French foreign
and domestic policy. The several versions of the Execution are
among Manet's largest paintings, which suggests that the theme was one
which the painter regarded as most important. Its subject is the
execution by Mexican firing squad of a Habsburg emperor who had been
installed by Napoleon III. Neither the paintings nor a lithograph of
the subject were permitted to be shown in France. As an indictment
of formalized slaughter the paintings look back to Goya, and
anticipate Picasso's Guernica.
In January 1871, Manet traveled to
Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the
Pyrenees. In his absence his friends added his name to the
"Fédération des artistes" (see: Courbet) of the
Paris Commune. Manet
stayed away from Paris, perhaps, until after the semaine sanglante: in
a letter to
Berthe Morisot at
Cherbourg (10 June 1871) he writes, "We
came back to
Paris a few days ago..." (the semaine sanglante ended on
The prints and drawings collection of the Museum of Fine Arts
(Budapest) has a watercolour/gouache by Manet, The Barricade,
depicting a summary execution of
Communards by Versailles troops based
on a lithograph of the execution of Maximilian. A similar piece, The
Barricade (oil on plywood), is held by a private collector.
On 18 March 1871, he wrote to his (confederate) friend Félix
Paris about his visit to Bordeaux, the provisory seat
of the French National Assembly of the
Third French Republic
Third French Republic where
Émile Zola introduced him to the sites: "I never imagined that France
could be represented by such doddering old fools, not excepting that
little twit Thiers..." If this could be interpreted as support of
the Commune, a following letter to Bracquemond (21 March 1871)
expressed his idea more clearly: "Only party hacks and the ambitious,
the Henrys of this world following on the heels of the Milliéres, the
grotesque imitators of the Commune of 1793..." He knew the communard
Lucien Henry to have been a former painter's model and Millière, an
insurance agent. "What an encouragement all these bloodthirsty
caperings are for the arts! But there is at least one consolation in
our misfortunes: that we're not politicians and have no desire to be
elected as deputies".
Manet depicted many scenes of the streets of
Paris in his works. The
Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags depicts red, white, and blue pennants
covering buildings on either side of the street; another painting of
the same title features a one-legged man walking with crutches. Again
depicting the same street, but this time in a different context, is
Rue Mosnier with Pavers, in which men repair the roadway while people
and horses move past.
The Railway, 1873
The Railway, widely known as The Gare Saint-Lazare, was painted in
1873. The setting is the urban landscape of
Paris in the late 19th
century. Using his favorite model in his last painting of her, a
fellow painter, Victorine Meurent, also the model for Olympia and the
Luncheon on the Grass, sits before an iron fence holding a sleeping
puppy and an open book in her lap. Next to her is a little girl with
her back to the painter, watching a train pass beneath them.
Instead of choosing the traditional natural view as background for an
outdoor scene, Manet opts for the iron grating which "boldly stretches
across the canvas" The only evidence of the train is its white
cloud of steam. In the distance, modern apartment buildings are seen.
This arrangement compresses the foreground into a narrow focus. The
traditional convention of deep space is ignored.
Historian Isabelle Dervaux has described the reception this painting
received when it was first exhibited at the official
Paris Salon of
1874: "Visitors and critics found its subject baffling, its
composition incoherent, and its execution sketchy. Caricaturists
ridiculed Manet's picture, in which only a few recognized the symbol
of modernity that it has become today". The painting is currently
National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
Manet painted several boating subjects in 1874. Boating, now in the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, exemplifies in its conciseness the lessons
Manet learned from Japanese prints, and the abrupt cropping by the
frame of the boat and sail adds to the immediacy of the image.
In 1875, a book-length French edition of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven
included lithographs by Manet and translation by Mallarmé.
In 1881, with pressure from his friend Antonin Proust, the French
government awarded Manet the Légion d'honneur.
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882,
Courtauld Gallery, London
In his mid-forties Manet's health deteriorated, and he developed
severe pain and partial paralysis in his legs. In 1879 he began
receiving hydrotherapy treatments at a spa near
Meudon intended to
improve what he believed was a circulatory problem, but in reality he
was suffering from locomotor ataxia, a known side-effect of
syphilis. In 1880, he painted a portrait there of the opera
Émilie Ambre as Carmen. Ambre and her lover Gaston de Beauplan
had an estate in
Meudon and had organized the first exhibition of
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian in New York in December
In his last years Manet painted many small-scale still lifes of fruits
and vegetables, such as Bunch of Asparagus and The Lemon (both
1880). He completed his last major work, A Bar at the
Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), in 1882 and it hung in
the Salon that year. Afterwards he limited himself to small formats.
His last paintings were of flowers in glass vases.
In April 1883, his left foot was amputated because of gangrene, and he
died eleven days later in Paris. He is buried in the
Passy Cemetery in
Manet's public career lasted from 1861, the year of his first
participation in the Salon, until his death in 1883. His extant works,
as catalogued in 1975 by Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein, comprise
430 oil paintings, 89 pastels, and more than 400 works on paper.
The grave of Manet at Passy
Although harshly condemned by critics who decried its lack of
conventional finish, Manet's work had admirers from the beginning. One
was Émile Zola, who wrote in 1867: "We are not accustomed to seeing
such simple and direct translations of reality. Then, as I said, there
is such a surprisingly elegant awkwardness ... it is a truly charming
experience to contemplate this luminous and serious painting which
interprets nature with a gentle brutality."
The roughly painted style and photographic lighting in Manet's
paintings was seen as specifically modern, and as a challenge to the
Renaissance works he copied or used as source material. He rejected
the technique he had learned in the studio of
Thomas Couture – in
which a painting was constructed using successive layers of paint on a
dark-toned ground – in favor of a direct, alla prima method using
opaque paint on a light ground. Novel at the time, this method made
possible the completion of a painting in a single sitting. It was
adopted by the Impressionists, and became the prevalent method of
painting in oils for generations that followed. Manet's work is
considered "early modern", partially because of the opaque flatness of
his surfaces, the frequent sketchlike passages, and the black
outlining of figures, all of which draw attention to the surface of
the picture plane and the material quality of paint.
The art historian Beatrice Farwell says Manet "has been universally
regarded as the Father of Modernism. With Courbet he was among the
first to take serious risks with the public whose favour he sought,
the first to make alla prima painting the standard technique for oil
painting and one of the first to take liberties with Renaissance
perspective and to offer ‘pure painting’ as a source of aesthetic
pleasure. He was a pioneer, again with Courbet, in the rejection of
humanistic and historical subject-matter, and shared with Degas the
establishment of modern urban life as acceptable material for high
The late Manet painting, Le Printemps (1881), sold to the J. Paul
Getty Museum for $65.1 million, setting a new auction record for
Manet, exceeding its pre-sale estimate of $25–35 million at
Christie's on 5 November 2014. The previous auction record was
held by Self-Portrait With Palette which sold for $33.2 million at
Sotheby's on 22 June 2010.
The Christ as a Gardener, c. 1858/59, Private Collection
The Absinthe Drinker c. 1859, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
The Spanish Singer, 1860 Metropolitan Museum of Art
Boy Carrying a Sword, 1861
The surprised nymph, 1861, National Museum of Fine Arts, Buenos Aires
The Old Musician, 1862, National Gallery of Art
Mlle. Victorine in the Costume of a Matador, 1862, Metropolitan Museum
The Dead Christ with Angels, 1864
The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama, 1864, Philadelphia Museum
of Art. Inspired by the Battle of
Dead Matador, 1864–65, National Gallery of Art
The Philosopher, (Beggar with Oysters), 1864–67, Art Institute of
The Ragpicker, 1865–70, Norton Simon Museum
The Reading, 1865–1873
Young Flautist, or The Fifer, 1866, Musée d'Orsay
Still Life with Melon and Peaches, 1866, National Gallery of Art
The Tragic Actor (Rouvière as Hamlet), 1866, National Gallery of Art
Woman with Parrot, 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Guitar Player, c.1866, Hill-Stead Museum
Portrait of Madame Brunet, 1867, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1868
Portrait of Émile Zola, 1868, Musée d'Orsay
Breakfast in the Studio (the Black Jacket), 1868, New Pinakothek,
The Balcony, 1868–69, Musée d'Orsay
Gypsy with a Cigarette, ca.1860s–1870s, Princeton University Art
Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Portrait of Abbé Hurel, 1874, National Museum of Decorative Arts,
The grand canal of Venice (Blue Venice), 1875, Shelburne Museum
Madame Manet, 1874–76, Norton Simon Museum
Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876, Musée d'Orsay
Nana, 1877, Hamburger Kunsthalle
The Rue Mosnier with Flags, 1878, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Plum, 1878, National Gallery of Art
In the Conservatory, 1879, National Gallery, Berlin
Chez le père Lathuille, 1879, Musée des Beaux-Arts Tournai
Bunch of Asparagus, 1880, Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
The Bugler, 1882, Dallas Museum of Art
House in Rueil, 1882, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Garden Path in Rueil, 1882, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon
Flowers in a Crystal Vase, 1882, National Gallery of Art
Still Life, Lilac Bouquet, 1883
Carnations and Clematis in a Crystal Vase, 1883, Musée d'Orsay
The bar, 1878-79, Pushkin Museum
List of paintings by Édouard Manet
History of painting
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^ a b c d e Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade
that Gave the World Impressionism. New York: Waller & Company,
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^ "Édouard Manet". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 22 July
^ Ross King, The Judgement of Paris, p.20-21, from Fernand Desnoyers,
Le Salon des Refusés, 1863
^ Paul Hayes Tucker, Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, Cambridge
University Press, 1998, pp.12–14. ISBN 0-521-47466-3.
^ John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, The Museum of Modern Art,
4th revised edition 1973, (1st 1946, 2nd 1955, 3rd 1961), p.85.
^ Neret, Gilles. Manet. Taschen, 2003. p. 22. ISBN 3-8228-1949-2
^ Hunter, Dianne. Seduction and theory: readings of gender,
representation, and rhetoric. University of Illinois Press, 1989. p.
19. ISBN 0-252-06063-6.
^ Mauner, G. L., & Loyrette, H. Manet: the still-life paintings.
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^ Delage, R. Emmanuel Chabrier. Paris: Fayard, 1999. Chapter XI
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^ "At the Café". The Walters Art Museum.
^ Krell, Alan, Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life, page 83.
Thames and Hudson, 1996.
^ Krell, pages 84–6.
^ Krell, pages 87–91.
^ Krell, page 91.
^ Krell, page 89.
^ Juliet Wilson-Bareau, ed., Manet by himself, UK: Little Brown, 2004
^ Gay, p. 106.
^ Adams, Katherine H.; Michael L. Keene. After the Vote Was Won: The
Later Achievements of Fifteen Suffragists. McFarland, 2010. p. 37.
^ "Art Object Page". Nga.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
^ Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian
Society. Yale University Press, 1991. p. 236. ISBN 0-300-05083-6.
^ "NYPL Digital Gallery Browse Title". Digitalgallery.nypl.org.
Retrieved 22 July 2013.
^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Impressionist Quartet: the Intimate Genius of Manet
and Morisot, Degas and Cassatt. Orlando: Harcourt, 2005. p. 80.
^ "Manet, Édouard" in Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Oxford Art
Online (Oxford University Press), accessed 23 November 2013
^ Tinterow, Gary and Lacambre, Geneviève (2003). Manet/Velázquez:
The French Taste for Spanish Painting, p. 503. Metropolitan Museum of
^ Mauner & Loyrette, pp. 96–100.
^ Mauner & Loyrette, p. 144.
^ Manet, Édouard, Mary Anne Stevens, and Lawrence W. Nichols. Manet:
Portraying Life. Toledo: Toledo Museum of Art. 2012. p. 17.
^ Manet, Édouard, Mary Anne Stevens, and Lawrence W. Nichols. Manet:
Portraying Life. Toledo: Toledo Museum of Art. 2012. p. 168.
^ a b Farwell, Beatrice. "Manet, Edouard." Grove Art Online. Oxford
Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web.
^ Manet Le Printemps, Lot 16, Christie's Impressionist & Modern
Evening Sale, 5 November 2014, New York
^ Nakano, Craig. Getty breaks record with $65.1-million purchase of
Manet's 'Spring', Los Angeles Times. 5 November 2014.
Short introductory works:
Manet by Gilles Neret (2003; Taschen), ISBN 3-8228-1949-2
Manet by John Richardson (1992; Phaidon Colour Library),
Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade that Gave
the World Impressionism. New York: Waller & Company, 2006
Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat by Beth Archer Brombert (1996),
ISBN 0-316-10947-9 and ISBN 0-226-07544-3 (1997 paperback)
Françoise Cachin (1990 in French; English translation 1991),
The Drawings of
Édouard Manet by Alain de Leiris (1969),
The Painting of Modern Life:
Paris in the Art of Manet and His
Followers by T.J. Clark (1985), ISBN 0-500-28179-3 (2000
Manet: Painter of Modern Life by
Françoise Cachin (1995),
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Édouard Manet (category)
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Édouard Manet
Works by or about
Édouard Manet at Internet Archive
Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. ULAN Full Record
Display for Édouard Manet, Getty Research Institute
Impressionism: a centenary exhibition, an exhibition catalog from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art (p. 110–130)
Manet, a video documentary about his work
Documenting the Gilded Age: New York City Exhibitions at the Turn of
the 20th Century
The Private Collection of Edgar Degas, material on Manet's
relationship with Degas, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Édouard Manet (list of works)
The Absinthe Drinker (1859)
The Spanish Singer
The Spanish Singer (1860)
Boy Carrying a Sword
Boy Carrying a Sword (1861)
Music in the Tuileries
Music in the Tuileries (1862)
The Old Musician
The Old Musician (1862)
The Luncheon on the Grass (1863)
The Kearsarge at Boulogne
The Kearsarge at Boulogne (1864)
The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama
The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama (1864)
The Fifer (1866)
The Races at Longchamp
The Races at Longchamp (1867)
The Balcony (1868)
Luncheon in the Studio
Luncheon in the Studio (1868)
Portrait of Emile Zola
Portrait of Emile Zola (1868)
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian (1869)
Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge
Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge (1870)
Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets
Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets (1872)
The Railway (1873)
The Reading (1873)
The Plum (1877)
Le Suicidé (1877–81)
In the Conservatory
In the Conservatory (1879)
The Café-Concert (1879)
Self-Portrait with Palette (1879)
Dead Eagle Owl
Dead Eagle Owl (1881)
The Rabbit (1881)
Rochefort's Escape (1881)
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1882)
Suzanne Manet (wife)
A Studio at Les Batignolles
Henry O. Havemeyer
William Merritt Chase
Frederick Carl Frieseke
Lilla Cabot Perry
John Henry Twachtman
J. Alden Weir
William Blair Bruce
Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté
Maurice Galbraith Cullen
Helen Galloway McNicoll
James Wilson Morrice
Robert Wakeham Pilot
Giovanni Battista Ciolina
Nazmi Ziya Güran
Laura Muntz Lyall
John Peter Russell
Philip Wilson Steer
French Impressionist Cinema
The Impressionists (2006 drama)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 651X
BNF: cb121059934 (data)