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Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
(US: /mæˈneɪ/ or UK: /ˈmæneɪ/; French: [edwaʁ manɛ]; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future originally envisioned for him, and became engrossed in the world of painting. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the start of modern art. The last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with other great artists of the time, and develop his own style that would be heralded as innovative and serve as a major influence for future painters.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Music in the Tuileries 2.2 Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) 2.3 Olympia 2.4 Life and times 2.5 Cafe scenes 2.6 Paintings of social activities 2.7 War 2.8 Paris 2.9 Late works

3 Death 4 Legacy

4.1 Art market

5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Further reading

8 External links

Early life[edit]

Manet's portrait painted by Fantin-Latour

Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
was born in Paris
Paris
on 23 January 1832, in the ancestral hôtel particulier (mansion) on the rue des Petits Augustins (now rue Bonaparte) to an affluent and well-connected family.[1] His mother, Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince Charles Bernadotte, from whom the Swedish monarchs are descended. His father, Auguste Manet, was a French judge who expected Édouard to pursue a career in law. His uncle, Edmond Fournier, encouraged him to pursue painting and took young Manet to the Louvre.[2] In 1841 he enrolled at secondary school, the Collège Rollin. In 1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust, future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent lifelong friend. At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to Rio de Janeiro. After he twice failed the examination to join the Navy,[3] his father relented to his wishes to pursue an art education. From 1850 to 1856, Manet studied under the academic painter Thomas Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the Old Masters in the Louvre. From 1853 to 1856, Manet visited Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, during which time he was influenced by the Dutch painter Frans Hals, and the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
and Francisco José de Goya. Career[edit] In 1856, Manet opened a studio. His style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details and the suppression of transitional tones. Adopting the current style of realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker (1858–59) and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, singers, Gypsies, people in cafés, and bullfights. After his early career, he rarely painted religious, mythological, or historical subjects; examples include his Christ Mocked, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, and Christ with Angels, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Manet had two canvases accepted at the Salon in 1861. A portrait of his mother and father, who at the time was paralysed and robbed of speech by a stroke, was ill-received by critics. The other, The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier, and placed in a more conspicuous location as a result of its popularity with Salon-goers. Manet's work, which appeared "slightly slapdash" when compared with the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings, intrigued some young artists. The Spanish Singer, painted in a "strange new fashion [-] caused many painters' eyes to open and their jaws to drop."[4] Music in the Tuileries[edit] Main article: Music in the Tuileries

Music in the Tuileries, 1862

Music in the Tuileries
Music in the Tuileries
is an early example of Manet's painterly style. Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his lifelong interest in the subject of leisure. While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some,[2] the suggested atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at the time; one may imagine the music and conversation. Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists, authors, and musicians who take part, and he has included a self-portrait among the subjects. Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe)[edit] Main article: Le déjeuner sur l'herbe

The Luncheon
The Luncheon
on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863

A major early work is The Luncheon
The Luncheon
on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), originally Le Bain. The Paris
Paris
Salon rejected it for exhibition in 1863, but Manet agreed to exhibit it at the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) which was a parallel exhibition to the official Salon, as an alternative exhibition in the Palais des Champs-Elysée. The Salon des Refusés
Salon des Refusés
was initiated by Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
as a solution to a problematic situation which came about as the Selection Committee of the Salon that year rejected 2,783 paintings of the ca. 5000. Each painter could decide whether to take the opportunity to exhibit at the Salon des Refusés, less than 500 of the rejected painters chose to do so. Manet employed model Victorine Meurent, his wife Suzanne, future brother-in-law Ferdinand Leenhoff, and one of his brothers to pose. Meurent also posed for several more of Manet's important paintings including Olympia; and by the mid-1870s she became an accomplished painter in her own right. The painting's juxtaposition of fully dressed men and a nude woman was controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time, Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of the Judgement of Paris
Paris
(c. 1515) based on a drawing by Raphael.[2] Two additional works cited by scholars as important precedents for Le déjeuner sur l'herbe are Pastoral Concert
Pastoral Concert
(c. 1510, The Louvre) and The Tempest (Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice), both of which are attributed variously to Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
masters Giorgione
Giorgione
or Titian.[5] The Tempest is an enigmatic painting featuring a fully dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing to the left and gazing to the side, apparently at the woman, who is seated and breastfeeding a baby; the relationship between the two figures is unclear.[6] In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men and a nude woman are seated on the grass, engaged in music making, while a second nude woman stands beside them. Olympia[edit]

Olympia, 1863

Main article: Olympia (Manet) As he had in Luncheon on the Grass, Manet again paraphrased a respected work by a Renaissance
Renaissance
artist in the painting Olympia (1863), a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of early studio photographs, but whose pose was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino
Venus of Urbino
(1538). The painting is also reminiscent of Francisco Goya's painting The Nude Maja (1800). Manet embarked on the canvas after being challenged to give the Salon a nude painting to display. His uniquely frank depiction of a self-assured prostitute was accepted by the Paris
Paris
Salon in 1865, where it created a scandal. According to Antonin Proust, "only the precautions taken by the administration prevented the painting being punctured and torn" by offended viewers.[7] The painting was controversial partly because the nude is wearing some small items of clothing such as an orchid in her hair, a bracelet, a ribbon around her neck, and mule slippers, all of which accentuated her nakedness, sexuality, and comfortable courtesan lifestyle. The orchid, upswept hair, black cat, and bouquet of flowers were all recognized symbols of sexuality at the time. This modern Venus' body is thin, counter to prevailing standards; the painting's lack of idealism rankled viewers. The painting's flatness, inspired by Japanese wood block art, serves to make the nude more human and less voluptuous. A fully dressed black servant is featured, exploiting the then-current theory that black people were hyper-sexed.[2] That she is wearing the clothing of a servant to a courtesan here furthers the sexual tension of the piece. Olympia's body as well as her gaze is unabashedly confrontational. She defiantly looks out as her servant offers flowers from one of her male suitors. Although her hand rests on her leg, hiding her pubic area, the reference to traditional female virtue is ironic; a notion of modesty is notoriously absent in this work. A contemporary critic denounced Olympia's "shamelessly flexed" left hand, which seemed to him a mockery of the relaxed, shielding hand of Titian's Venus.[8] Likewise, the alert black cat at the foot of the bed strikes a sexually rebellious note in contrast to that of the sleeping dog in Titian's portrayal of the goddess in his Venus of Urbino. Olympia was the subject of caricatures in the popular press, but was championed by the French avant-garde community, and the painting's significance was appreciated by artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul Cézanne, Claude Monet, and later Paul Gauguin. As with Luncheon on the Grass, the painting raised the issue of prostitution within contemporary France and the roles of women within society.[2] Life and times[edit]

Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
with a Bouquet of Violets, 1872

After the death of his father in 1862, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff in 1863. Leenhoff was a Dutch-born piano teacher two years Manet's senior with whom he had been romantically involved for approximately ten years. Leenhoff initially had been employed by Manet's father, Auguste, to teach Manet and his younger brother piano. She also may have been Auguste's mistress. In 1852, Leenhoff gave birth, out of wedlock, to a son, Leon Koella Leenhoff. Manet painted his wife in The Reading, among other paintings. Eleven-year-old Leon Leenhoff, whose father may have been either of the Manets, posed often for Manet. Most famously, he is the subject of the Boy Carrying a Sword
Boy Carrying a Sword
of 1861 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). He also appears as the boy carrying a tray in the background of The Balcony.[9] He became friends with the Impressionists Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
and Camille Pissarro through another painter, Berthe Morisot, who was a member of the group and drew him into their activities. The grand niece of the painter Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Morisot had her first painting accepted in the Salon de Paris
Paris
in 1864, and she continued to show in the salon for the next ten years. Manet became the friend and colleague of Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
in 1868. She is credited with convincing Manet to attempt plein air painting, which she had been practicing since she was introduced to it by another friend of hers, Camille Corot. They had a reciprocating relationship and Manet incorporated some of her techniques into his paintings. In 1874, she became his sister-in-law when she married his brother, Eugène.

Self-Portrait with Palette, 1879

One of Manet's frequent models, especially at the beginning of the 1880s, was the "semimondaine" Méry Laurent, who frequently sat for various other Impressionists. Unlike the core Impressionist group, Manet maintained that modern artists should seek to exhibit at the Paris
Paris
Salon rather than abandon it in favor of independent exhibitions. Nevertheless, when Manet was excluded from the International Exhibition of 1867, he set up his own exhibition. His mother worried that he would waste all his inheritance on this project, which was enormously expensive. While the exhibition earned poor reviews from the major critics, it also provided his first contacts with several future Impressionist painters, including Degas. Although his own work influenced and anticipated the Impressionist style, he resisted involvement in Impressionist exhibitions, partly because he did not wish to be seen as the representative of a group identity, and partly because he preferred to exhibit at the Salon. Eva Gonzalès, a daughter of the novelist Emmanuel Gonzalès, was his only formal student. He was influenced by the Impressionists, especially Monet and Morisot. Their influence is seen in Manet's use of lighter colors: after the early 1870s he made less use of dark backgrounds but retained his distinctive use of black, uncharacteristic of Impressionist painting. He painted many outdoor (plein air) pieces, but always returned to what he considered the serious work of the studio. Manet enjoyed a close friendship with composer Emmanuel Chabrier, painting two portraits of him; the musician owned 14 of Manet's paintings and dedicated his Impromptu to Manet's wife.[10] Throughout his life, although resisted by art critics, Manet could number as his champions Émile Zola, who supported him publicly in the press, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire, who challenged him to depict life as it was. Manet, in turn, drew or painted each of them. Cafe scenes[edit]

The Cafe Concert, 1878. Scene set in the Cabaret de Reichshoffen on the Boulevard Rochechouart, where women on the fringes of society freely intermingled with well-heeled gentlemen.[11] The Walters Art Museum.

Manet's paintings of café scenes are observations of social life in 19th-century Paris. People are depicted drinking beer, listening to music, flirting, reading, or waiting. Many of these paintings were based on sketches executed on the spot. He often visited the Brasserie Reichshoffen on boulevard de Rochechourt, upon which he based At the Cafe in 1878. Several people are at the bar, and one woman confronts the viewer while others wait to be served. Such depictions represent the painted journal of a flâneur. These are painted in a style which is loose, referencing Hals and Velázquez, yet they capture the mood and feeling of Parisian night life. They are painted snapshots of bohemianism, urban working people, as well as some of the bourgeoisie. In Corner of a Cafe Concert, a man smokes while behind him a waitress serves drinks. In The Beer Drinkers a woman enjoys her beer in the company of a friend. In The Cafe Concert, shown at right, a sophisticated gentleman sits at a bar while a waitress stands resolutely in the background, sipping her drink. In The Waitress, a serving woman pauses for a moment behind a seated customer smoking a pipe, while a ballet dancer, with arms extended as she is about to turn, is on stage in the background. Manet also sat at the restaurant on the Avenue de Clichy called Pere Lathuille's, which had a garden in addition to the dining area. One of the paintings he produced here was Chez le père Lathuille (At Pere Lathuille's), in which a man displays an unrequited interest in a woman dining near him. In Le Bon Bock (1873), a large, cheerful, bearded man sits with a pipe in one hand and a glass of beer in the other, looking straight at the viewer. Paintings of social activities[edit]

The Races at Longchamp, 1864

Manet painted the upper class enjoying more formal social activities. In Masked Ball at the Opera, Manet shows a lively crowd of people enjoying a party. Men stand with top hats and long black suits while talking to women with masks and costumes. He included portraits of his friends in this picture. His 1868 painting The Luncheon
The Luncheon
was posed in the dining room of the Manet house. Manet depicted other popular activities in his work. In The Races at Longchamp, an unusual perspective is employed to underscore the furious energy of racehorses as they rush toward the viewer. In Skating, Manet shows a well dressed woman in the foreground, while others skate behind her. Always there is the sense of active urban life continuing behind the subject, extending outside the frame of the canvas. In View of the International Exhibition, soldiers relax, seated and standing, prosperous couples are talking. There is a gardener, a boy with a dog, a woman on horseback—in short, a sample of the classes and ages of the people of Paris. War[edit]

The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1867. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The least finished of three large canvases devoted to the execution of Maximilian I of Mexico.

The Barricade (Civil War), 1871, ink, watercolor, and gouache on paper, Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest)

Manet's response to modern life included works devoted to war, in subjects that may be seen as updated interpretations of the genre of "history painting".[12] The first such work was the Battle of the Kearsarge and Alabama (1864), a sea skirmish known as the Battle of Cherbourg
Cherbourg
from the American Civil War
American Civil War
which took place off the French coast, and may have been witnessed by the artist.[13] Of interest next was the French intervention in Mexico; from 1867 to 1869 Manet painted three versions of the Execution of Emperor Maximilian, an event which raised concerns regarding French foreign and domestic policy.[14] The several versions of the Execution are among Manet's largest paintings, which suggests that the theme was one which the painter regarded as most important. Its subject is the execution by Mexican firing squad of a Habsburg emperor who had been installed by Napoleon III. Neither the paintings nor a lithograph of the subject were permitted to be shown in France.[15] As an indictment of formalized slaughter the paintings look back to Goya,[16] and anticipate Picasso's Guernica. In January 1871, Manet traveled to Oloron-Sainte-Marie
Oloron-Sainte-Marie
in the Pyrenees. In his absence his friends added his name to the "Fédération des artistes" (see: Courbet) of the Paris
Paris
Commune. Manet stayed away from Paris, perhaps, until after the semaine sanglante: in a letter to Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
at Cherbourg
Cherbourg
(10 June 1871) he writes, "We came back to Paris
Paris
a few days ago..." (the semaine sanglante ended on 28 May). The prints and drawings collection of the Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest) has a watercolour/gouache by Manet, The Barricade, depicting a summary execution of Communards
Communards
by Versailles troops based on a lithograph of the execution of Maximilian. A similar piece, The Barricade (oil on plywood), is held by a private collector. On 18 March 1871, he wrote to his (confederate) friend Félix Bracquemond in Paris
Paris
about his visit to Bordeaux, the provisory seat of the French National Assembly of the Third French Republic
Third French Republic
where Émile Zola
Émile Zola
introduced him to the sites: "I never imagined that France could be represented by such doddering old fools, not excepting that little twit Thiers..."[17] If this could be interpreted as support of the Commune, a following letter to Bracquemond (21 March 1871) expressed his idea more clearly: "Only party hacks and the ambitious, the Henrys of this world following on the heels of the Milliéres, the grotesque imitators of the Commune of 1793..." He knew the communard Lucien Henry to have been a former painter's model and Millière, an insurance agent. "What an encouragement all these bloodthirsty caperings are for the arts! But there is at least one consolation in our misfortunes: that we're not politicians and have no desire to be elected as deputies". Paris[edit] Manet depicted many scenes of the streets of Paris
Paris
in his works. The Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags depicts red, white, and blue pennants covering buildings on either side of the street; another painting of the same title features a one-legged man walking with crutches. Again depicting the same street, but this time in a different context, is Rue Mosnier with Pavers, in which men repair the roadway while people and horses move past.

The Railway, 1873

The Railway, widely known as The Gare Saint-Lazare, was painted in 1873. The setting is the urban landscape of Paris
Paris
in the late 19th century. Using his favorite model in his last painting of her, a fellow painter, Victorine Meurent, also the model for Olympia and the Luncheon on the Grass, sits before an iron fence holding a sleeping puppy and an open book in her lap. Next to her is a little girl with her back to the painter, watching a train pass beneath them. Instead of choosing the traditional natural view as background for an outdoor scene, Manet opts for the iron grating which "boldly stretches across the canvas"[18] The only evidence of the train is its white cloud of steam. In the distance, modern apartment buildings are seen. This arrangement compresses the foreground into a narrow focus. The traditional convention of deep space is ignored. Historian Isabelle Dervaux has described the reception this painting received when it was first exhibited at the official Paris
Paris
Salon of 1874: "Visitors and critics found its subject baffling, its composition incoherent, and its execution sketchy. Caricaturists ridiculed Manet's picture, in which only a few recognized the symbol of modernity that it has become today".[19] The painting is currently in the National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
in Washington, D.C.[20] Manet painted several boating subjects in 1874. Boating, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, exemplifies in its conciseness the lessons Manet learned from Japanese prints, and the abrupt cropping by the frame of the boat and sail adds to the immediacy of the image.[21] In 1875, a book-length French edition of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven included lithographs by Manet and translation by Mallarmé.[22] In 1881, with pressure from his friend Antonin Proust, the French government awarded Manet the Légion d'honneur.

A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
(Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882, Courtauld Gallery, London

Late works[edit] In his mid-forties Manet's health deteriorated, and he developed severe pain and partial paralysis in his legs. In 1879 he began receiving hydrotherapy treatments at a spa near Meudon
Meudon
intended to improve what he believed was a circulatory problem, but in reality he was suffering from locomotor ataxia, a known side-effect of syphilis.[23][24] In 1880, he painted a portrait there of the opera singer Émilie Ambre
Émilie Ambre
as Carmen. Ambre and her lover Gaston de Beauplan had an estate in Meudon
Meudon
and had organized the first exhibition of Manet's The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
in New York in December 1879.[25] In his last years Manet painted many small-scale still lifes of fruits and vegetables, such as Bunch of Asparagus and The Lemon (both 1880).[26] He completed his last major work, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), in 1882 and it hung in the Salon that year. Afterwards he limited himself to small formats. His last paintings were of flowers in glass vases.[27] Death[edit] In April 1883, his left foot was amputated because of gangrene, and he died eleven days later in Paris. He is buried in the Passy Cemetery
Passy Cemetery
in the city. Legacy[edit] Manet's public career lasted from 1861, the year of his first participation in the Salon, until his death in 1883. His extant works, as catalogued in 1975 by Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein, comprise 430 oil paintings, 89 pastels, and more than 400 works on paper.[28]

The grave of Manet at Passy

Although harshly condemned by critics who decried its lack of conventional finish, Manet's work had admirers from the beginning. One was Émile Zola, who wrote in 1867: "We are not accustomed to seeing such simple and direct translations of reality. Then, as I said, there is such a surprisingly elegant awkwardness ... it is a truly charming experience to contemplate this luminous and serious painting which interprets nature with a gentle brutality."[29] The roughly painted style and photographic lighting in Manet's paintings was seen as specifically modern, and as a challenge to the Renaissance
Renaissance
works he copied or used as source material. He rejected the technique he had learned in the studio of Thomas Couture
Thomas Couture
– in which a painting was constructed using successive layers of paint on a dark-toned ground – in favor of a direct, alla prima method using opaque paint on a light ground. Novel at the time, this method made possible the completion of a painting in a single sitting. It was adopted by the Impressionists, and became the prevalent method of painting in oils for generations that followed.[30] Manet's work is considered "early modern", partially because of the opaque flatness of his surfaces, the frequent sketchlike passages, and the black outlining of figures, all of which draw attention to the surface of the picture plane and the material quality of paint. The art historian Beatrice Farwell says Manet "has been universally regarded as the Father of Modernism. With Courbet he was among the first to take serious risks with the public whose favour he sought, the first to make alla prima painting the standard technique for oil painting and one of the first to take liberties with Renaissance perspective and to offer ‘pure painting’ as a source of aesthetic pleasure. He was a pioneer, again with Courbet, in the rejection of humanistic and historical subject-matter, and shared with Degas the establishment of modern urban life as acceptable material for high art."[30] Art market[edit] The late Manet painting, Le Printemps (1881), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum for $65.1 million, setting a new auction record for Manet, exceeding its pre-sale estimate of $25–35 million at Christie's on 5 November 2014.[31] The previous auction record was held by Self-Portrait With Palette which sold for $33.2 million at Sotheby's on 22 June 2010.[32] Gallery[edit]

The Christ as a Gardener, c. 1858/59, Private Collection

The Absinthe Drinker c. 1859, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

The Spanish Singer, 1860 Metropolitan Museum of Art

Boy Carrying a Sword, 1861

The surprised nymph, 1861, National Museum of Fine Arts, Buenos Aires

The Old Musician, 1862, National Gallery of Art

Mlle. Victorine in the Costume of a Matador, 1862, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Dead Christ with Angels, 1864

The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama, 1864, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Inspired by the Battle of Cherbourg
Cherbourg
(1864)

Dead Matador, 1864–65, National Gallery of Art

The Philosopher, (Beggar with Oysters), 1864–67, Art Institute of Chicago

The Ragpicker, 1865–70, Norton Simon Museum

The Reading, 1865–1873

Young Flautist, or The Fifer, 1866, Musée d'Orsay

Still Life with Melon and Peaches, 1866, National Gallery of Art

The Tragic Actor (Rouvière as Hamlet), 1866, National Gallery of Art

Woman with Parrot, 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Guitar Player, c.1866, Hill-Stead Museum

Portrait of Madame Brunet, 1867, J. Paul Getty Museum

The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1868

Portrait of Émile Zola, 1868, Musée d'Orsay

Breakfast in the Studio (the Black Jacket), 1868, New Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

The Balcony, 1868–69, Musée d'Orsay

Gypsy with a Cigarette, ca.1860s–1870s, Princeton University Art Museum

Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Portrait of Abbé Hurel, 1874, National Museum of Decorative Arts, Buenos Aires

The grand canal of Venice (Blue Venice), 1875, Shelburne Museum

Madame Manet, 1874–76, Norton Simon Museum

Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876, Musée d'Orsay

Nana, 1877, Hamburger Kunsthalle

The Rue Mosnier with Flags, 1878, J. Paul Getty Museum

The Plum, 1878, National Gallery of Art

In the Conservatory, 1879, National Gallery, Berlin

Chez le père Lathuille, 1879, Musée des Beaux-Arts Tournai

Bunch of Asparagus, 1880, Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

The Bugler, 1882, Dallas Museum of Art

House in Rueil, 1882, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Garden Path in Rueil, 1882, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon

Flowers in a Crystal Vase, 1882, National Gallery of Art

Still Life, Lilac Bouquet, 1883

Carnations and Clematis in a Crystal Vase, 1883, Musée d'Orsay

The bar, 1878-79, Pushkin Museum

See also[edit]

List of paintings by Édouard Manet Realism Portraiture History of painting Western painting

References[edit]

^ Neret, Gilles. Manet. Taschen, 2003. p. 93. ISBN 3-8228-1949-2 ^ a b c d e Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade that Gave the World Impressionism. New York: Waller & Company, 2006. ISBN 0-8027-1466-8. ^ "Édouard Manet". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ Ross King, The Judgement of Paris, p.20-21, from Fernand Desnoyers, Le Salon des Refusés, 1863 ^ Paul Hayes Tucker, Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp.12–14. ISBN 0-521-47466-3. ^ John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, The Museum of Modern Art, 4th revised edition 1973, (1st 1946, 2nd 1955, 3rd 1961), p.85. ISBN 0-87070-369-2. ^ Neret, Gilles. Manet. Taschen, 2003. p. 22. ISBN 3-8228-1949-2 ^ Hunter, Dianne. Seduction and theory: readings of gender, representation, and rhetoric. University of Illinois Press, 1989. p. 19. ISBN 0-252-06063-6. ^ Mauner, G. L., & Loyrette, H. Manet: the still-life paintings. New York: H.N. Abrams in association with the American Federation of Arts, 2000. p. 66. ISBN 0-8109-4391-3. ^ Delage, R. Emmanuel Chabrier. Paris: Fayard, 1999. Chapter XI examines in detail their relationship and the effects of each other on their work. ^ "At the Café". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Krell, Alan, Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life, page 83. Thames and Hudson, 1996. ^ Krell, pages 84–6. ^ Krell, pages 87–91. ^ Krell, page 91. ^ Krell, page 89. ^ Juliet Wilson-Bareau, ed., Manet by himself, UK: Little Brown, 2004 ^ Gay, p. 106. ^ Adams, Katherine H.; Michael L. Keene. After the Vote Was Won: The Later Achievements of Fifteen Suffragists. McFarland, 2010. p. 37. ISBN 0-7864-4938-1. ^ "Art Object Page". Nga.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society. Yale University Press, 1991. p. 236. ISBN 0-300-05083-6. ^ "NYPL Digital Gallery Browse Title". Digitalgallery.nypl.org. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Impressionist Quartet: the Intimate Genius of Manet and Morisot, Degas and Cassatt. Orlando: Harcourt, 2005. p. 80. ISBN 0151010765 ^ "Manet, Édouard" in Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Oxford Art Online (Oxford University Press), accessed 23 November 2013 (subscription required). ^ Tinterow, Gary and Lacambre, Geneviève (2003). Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting, p. 503. Metropolitan Museum of Art ^ Mauner & Loyrette, pp. 96–100. ^ Mauner & Loyrette, p. 144. ^ Manet, Édouard, Mary Anne Stevens, and Lawrence W. Nichols. Manet: Portraying Life. Toledo: Toledo Museum of Art. 2012. p. 17. ISBN 9781907533532 ^ Manet, Édouard, Mary Anne Stevens, and Lawrence W. Nichols. Manet: Portraying Life. Toledo: Toledo Museum of Art. 2012. p. 168. ISBN 9781907533532 ^ a b Farwell, Beatrice. "Manet, Edouard." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. ^ Manet Le Printemps, Lot 16, Christie's Impressionist & Modern Evening Sale, 5 November 2014, New York ^ Nakano, Craig. Getty breaks record with $65.1-million purchase of Manet's 'Spring', Los Angeles Times. 5 November 2014.

Further reading[edit] Short introductory works:

Manet by Gilles Neret (2003; Taschen), ISBN 3-8228-1949-2 Manet by John Richardson (1992; Phaidon Colour Library), ISBN 0-7148-2755-X Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade that Gave the World Impressionism. New York: Waller & Company, 2006 ISBN 0-8027-1466-8.

Longer works:

Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat by Beth Archer Brombert (1996), ISBN 0-316-10947-9 and ISBN 0-226-07544-3 (1997 paperback) Manet by Françoise Cachin
Françoise Cachin
(1990 in French; English translation 1991), ISBN 0-8050-1793-3 The Drawings of Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
by Alain de Leiris (1969), ISBN 0-520-01547-9 The Painting of Modern Life: Paris
Paris
in the Art of Manet and His Followers by T.J. Clark (1985), ISBN 0-500-28179-3 (2000 paperback edition) Manet: Painter of Modern Life by Françoise Cachin
Françoise Cachin
(1995), ISBN 0-500-30050-X

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Édouard Manet

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
(category)

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Édouard Manet

Works by or about Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
at Internet Archive Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. ULAN Full Record Display for Édouard Manet, Getty Research Institute Impressionism: a centenary exhibition, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(p. 110–130) Manet, a video documentary about his work Documenting the Gilded Age: New York City Exhibitions at the Turn of the 20th Century The Private Collection of Edgar Degas, material on Manet's relationship with Degas, Metropolitan Museum of Art

v t e

Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
(list of works)

Paintings

The Absinthe Drinker (1859) The Spanish Singer
The Spanish Singer
(1860) Boy Carrying a Sword
Boy Carrying a Sword
(1861) Music in the Tuileries
Music in the Tuileries
(1862) The Old Musician
The Old Musician
(1862) The Luncheon
The Luncheon
on the Grass (1863) Olympia (1863) The Kearsarge at Boulogne
The Kearsarge at Boulogne
(1864) The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama
The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama
(1864) The Fifer
The Fifer
(1866) The Races at Longchamp
The Races at Longchamp
(1867) The Balcony (1868) Luncheon in the Studio
Luncheon in the Studio
(1868) Portrait of Emile Zola
Portrait of Emile Zola
(1868) The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian
(1869) Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge
Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge
(1870) Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets
Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets
(1872) The Railway
The Railway
(1873) The Reading
The Reading
(1873) Nana (1877) The Plum
The Plum
(1877) Le Suicidé
Le Suicidé
(1877–81) In the Conservatory
In the Conservatory
(1879) The Café-Concert (1879) Self-Portrait with Palette (1879) Dead Eagle Owl
Dead Eagle Owl
(1881) The Rabbit (1881) Rochefort's Escape
Rochefort's Escape
(1881) Spring (1881) A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
(1882)

Models

Victorine Meurent Suzanne Manet
Suzanne Manet
(wife)

Related

A Studio at Les Batignolles

v t e

Impressionism

Originators

Frédéric Bazille Eugène Boudin Gustave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Edgar Degas Armand Guillaumin Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley

Patrons

Gustave Caillebotte Henry O. Havemeyer Ernest Hoschedé

Dealers

Paul Durand-Ruel Georges Petit Ambroise Vollard

American artists

William Merritt Chase Frederick Carl Frieseke Childe Hassam Willard Metcalf Lilla Cabot Perry Theodore Robinson John Henry Twachtman J. Alden Weir

Canadian artists

Henri Beau William Blair Bruce William Brymner Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté Maurice Galbraith Cullen Helen Galloway McNicoll James Wilson Morrice Robert Wakeham Pilot

Other artists

Marie Bracquemond Giovanni Battista Ciolina Lovis Corinth Antoine Guillemet Nazmi Ziya Güran Max Liebermann Laura Muntz Lyall Konstantin Korovin Henry Moret Francisco Oller Władysław Podkowiński John Peter Russell Valentin Serov Max Slevogt Joaquín Sorolla Philip Wilson Steer Eliseu Visconti

Other media

Music Literature French Impressionist Cinema

See also

American Impressionism

The Ten

California Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Canadian Impressionism Heidelberg School Amsterdam Impressionism Decorative Impressionism Post-Impressionism

Related

The Impressionists (2006 drama)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97379936 LCCN: n79043160 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 651X GND: 11857700X SELIBR: 207631 SUDOC: 029430925 BNF: cb121059934 (data) BIBSYS: 90052068 ULAN: 500010363 NLA: 35961447 NDL: 00448674 NKC: jn20000701136 Léonore: LH/1715/41 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV60037 BNE: XX1098073 CiNii: DA02087269 KulturNav: 2baf1dc0-0bd8-41fd-ba82-d5462fe88af6 RKD: 52

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