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Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
(French: [edwaʁ daladje]; 18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
at the start of the Second World War.

Contents

1 Career

1.1 Munich 1.2 Rearmament 1.3 World War II 1.4 Later life

2 Daladier's first ministry, 31 January – 26 October 1933 3 Daladier's second ministry, 30 January – 9 February 1934 4 Daladier's third ministry, 10 April 1938 – 21 March 1940 5 See also 6 Endnotes 7 References 8 External links

Career[edit] Daladier was born in Carpentras, Vaucluse. Later, he would become known to many as "the bull of Vaucluse" because of his thick neck and large shoulders and determined look, although cynics also quipped that his horns were like those of a snail. During World War I, he rose from private to captain and company commander. A government minister in various posts during the coalition governments between 1924 and 1928, he was instrumental in the Radical Party's break with the socialist SFIO in 1926, the first Cartel des gauches ("Left-wing Coalition"), and with the conservative Raymond Poincaré in November 1928. Daladier became a leading member of the Radicals. In 1932 he knew from German rivals to Hitler that Krupp
Krupp
was manufacturing heavy artillery and the Deuxieme Bureau had a grasp of the scale of German military preparations, but lacked hard intelligence of their hostile intentions.[1] He first became Prime Minister in 1933, and then again in 1934 for a few days when the Stavisky Affair led to the riots of 6 February 1934 instigated by the far right and the fall of the second Cartel des gauches. Daladier became Minister of War for the Popular Front coalition in 1936; after the fall of the Popular Front, he became Prime Minister again on 10 April 1938. While the forty-hour working week was abolished under Daladier's government, a more generous system of family allowances was established, set as a percentage of wages: for the first child, 5%; for the second, 10%; and for each additional child, 15%. Also created was a home-mother allowance, which had been advocated by pronatalist and Catholic women’s groups since 1929. All mothers who were not professionally employed and whose husbands collected family allowances were eligible for this new benefit. In March 1939, the government added 10% for workers whose wives stayed home to take care of the children. Family allowances were enshrined in the Family Code of July 1939 and, with the exception of the stay-at-home allowance, have remained in force to this day. In addition, a decree was issued in May 1938 which authorized the establishment of vocational guidance centers. In July 1937, a law was passed (which was followed by a similar law in May 1946) that empowered the Department of Workplace Inspection to order temporary medical interventions.[2] Munich[edit]

Neville Chamberlain, Daladier, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, as they prepared to sign the Munich Agreement.

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
(centre) leaving Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
after the Munich Summit 1938

Daladier's last government was in power at the time of the negotiations preceding the Munich Agreement, when France backed out of its obligations to defend Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
against Nazi Germany. He was pushed into negotiating by Britain's Neville Chamberlain. Unlike Chamberlain, Daladier had no illusions about Hitler's ultimate goals. In fact, he told the British in a late April 1938 meeting that Hitler's real aim was to eventually secure "a domination of the Continent in comparison with which the ambitions of Napoleon were feeble." He went on to say, "Today, it is the turn of Czechoslovakia. Tomorrow, it will be the turn of Poland and Romania. When Germany has obtained the oil and wheat it needs, she will turn on the West. Certainly we must multiply our efforts to avoid war. But that will not be obtained unless Great Britain and France stick together, intervening in Prague for new concessions but declaring at the same time that they will safeguard the independence of Czechoslovakia. If, on the contrary, the Western Powers capitulate again, they will only precipitate the war they wish to avoid."[3] Nevertheless, perhaps discouraged by the pessimistic and defeatist attitudes of both military and civilian members of the French government, as well as traumatized by France's blood-bath in World War I that he personally witnessed, Daladier ultimately let Chamberlain have his way. On his return to Paris, Daladier, who was expecting a hostile crowd, was acclaimed. He then commented to his aide, Alexis Léger: "Ah, les cons (morons)!"[4] Rearmament[edit] In October 1938, Daladier opened secret talks with the Americans on how to bypass American neutrality laws and allow the French to buy American aircraft to make up for productivity deficiencies in the French aircraft industry.[5] Daladier commented in October 1938, "If I had three or four thousand aircraft, Munich would never have happened," and he was most anxious to buy American war planes as the only way to strengthen the French Air Force.[6] A major problem in the Franco-American talks was how the French were to pay for the American planes, as well as how to bypass the American neutrality acts[7] In addition, France had defaulted on its World War I
World War I
debts in 1932 and hence fell foul of the American Johnson Act of 1934, which forbade loans to nations that had defaulted on their World War I
World War I
debts.[8] In February 1939, the French offered to cede their possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific together with a lump sum payment of 10 billion francs, in exchange for the unlimited right to buy, on credit, American aircraft.[9] After tortuous negotiations, an arrangement was worked out in the spring of 1939 to allow the French to place huge orders with the American aircraft industry; though, as most of the aircraft ordered had not arrived in France by 1940, the Americans arranged for French orders to be diverted to the British.[10] World War II[edit] When the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
was signed, Daladier responded to the public outcry by outlawing the French Communist Party
French Communist Party
on the basis that it had refused to condemn Joseph Stalin's actions. In 1939, after the German invasion of Poland, he was reluctant to go to war, but he did so on 3 September 1939, inaugurating the Phoney War. On 6 October of that year, Hitler offered France and Great Britain a peace proposal. There were more than a few in the French government prepared to take Hitler up on his offer; but, in a nationwide broadcast the next day, Daladier declared, "We took up arms against aggression. We shall not put them down until we have guarantees for a real peace and security, a security which is not threatened every six months."[11] On 29 January 1940, in a radio address delivered to the people of France entitled The Nazis' Aim is Slavery, Daladier left little doubt about his opinion of the Germans. In his radio address, he said: "For us, there is more to do than merely win the war. We shall win it, but we must also win a victory far greater than that of arms. In this world of masters and slaves, which those madmen who rule at Berlin are seeking to forge, we must also save liberty and human dignity." In March 1940, Daladier resigned as Prime Minister in France because of his failure to aid Finland's defence during the Winter War, and he was replaced by Paul Reynaud. Daladier remained Minister of Defence, however, and his antipathy to Paul Reynaud
Paul Reynaud
prevented Reynaud from dismissing Maurice Gamelin
Maurice Gamelin
as Supreme Commander of all French armed forces. As a result of the massive German breakthrough at Sedan, Daladier swapped ministerial offices with Reynaud, taking over the Foreign Ministry while Reynaud took over Defence. Gamelin was finally replaced by Maxime Weygand
Maxime Weygand
on 19 May 1940, nine days after the Germans began their invasion campaign. Under the impression the government would continue in North Africa, Daladier fled with other members of the government to Morocco; but he was arrested and tried for treason by the Vichy government during the "Riom Trial". Daladier was interned in Fort du Portalet
Fort du Portalet
in the Pyrenees.[12] He was kept in prison from 1940 to April 1943, when he was handed over to the Germans and deported to Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
in Germany. In May 1943, he was transported to the Itter Castle
Itter Castle
in North Tyrol with other French dignitaries, where he remained until the end of the war. He was freed after the Battle for Castle Itter. Later life[edit] After the war ended, Daladier was a member of the Chamber of Deputies, where he was an opponent of Charles de Gaulle. He was also mayor of Avignon
Avignon
from 1953 until 1958. He died in Paris
Paris
in 1970 and is buried in the famous cemetery of Père-Lachaise. Daladier's first ministry, 31 January – 26 October 1933[edit]

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
– President of the Council and Minister of War Eugène Penancier
Eugène Penancier
– Vice President of the Council and Minister of Justice Joseph Paul-Boncour
Joseph Paul-Boncour
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Camille Chautemps
Camille Chautemps
– Minister of the Interior Georges Bonnet
Georges Bonnet
– Minister of Finance Lucien Lamoureux – Minister of Budget François Albert
François Albert
– Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Georges Leygues
Georges Leygues
– Minister of Marine Eugène Frot
Eugène Frot
– Minister of Merchant Marine Pierre Cot
Pierre Cot
– Minister of Air Anatole de Monzie – Minister of National Education Edmond Miellet
Edmond Miellet
– Minister of Pensions Henri Queuille
Henri Queuille
– Minister of Agriculture Albert Sarraut
Albert Sarraut
– Minister of Colonies Joseph Paganon – Minister of Public Works Charles Daniélou
Charles Daniélou
– Minister of Public Health Laurent Eynac – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones Louis Serre – Minister of Commerce and Industry

Changes

6 September 1933 – Albert Sarraut
Albert Sarraut
succeeds Leygues (d. 2 September) as Minister of Marine. Albert Dalimier
Albert Dalimier
succeeds Sarraut as Minister of Colonies.

Daladier's second ministry, 30 January – 9 February 1934[edit]

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Eugène Penancier
Eugène Penancier
– Vice President of the Council and Minister of Justice Jean Fabry
Jean Fabry
– Minister of National Defence and War Eugène Frot
Eugène Frot
– Minister of the Interior François Piétri
François Piétri
– Minister of Finance Jean Valadier – Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Louis de Chappedelaine
Louis de Chappedelaine
– Minister of Military Marine Guy La Chambre
Guy La Chambre
– Minister of Merchant Marine Pierre Cot
Pierre Cot
– Minister of Air Aimé Berthod – Minister of National Education Hippolyte Ducos – Minister of Pensions Henri Queuille
Henri Queuille
– Minister of Agriculture Henry de Jouvenel
Henry de Jouvenel
– Minister of Overseas France Joseph Paganon – Minister of Public Works Émile Lisbonne – Minister of Public Health Paul Bernier – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones Jean Mistler
Jean Mistler
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

Changes

4 February 1934 – Joseph Paul-Boncour
Joseph Paul-Boncour
succeeds Fabry as Minister of National Defence and War. Paul Marchandeau
Paul Marchandeau
succeeds Piétri as Minister of Finance.

Daladier's third ministry, 10 April 1938 – 21 March 1940[edit]

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
(right) with ambassador André François-Poncet
André François-Poncet
at the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
1938

Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
– President of the Council and Minister of National Defence and War Camille Chautemps
Camille Chautemps
– Vice President of the Council Georges Bonnet
Georges Bonnet
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Albert Sarraut
Albert Sarraut
– Minister of the Interior Paul Marchandeau
Paul Marchandeau
– Minister of Finance Raymond Patenôtre – Minister of National Economy Paul Ramadier
Paul Ramadier
– Minister of Labour Paul Reynaud
Paul Reynaud
– Minister of Justice César Campinchi
César Campinchi
– Minister of Military Marine Louis de Chappedelaine
Louis de Chappedelaine
– Minister of Merchant Marine Guy La Chambre
Guy La Chambre
– Minister of Air Jean Zay
Jean Zay
– Minister of National Education Auguste Champetier de Ribes
Auguste Champetier de Ribes
– Minister of Veterans and Pensioners Henri Queuille
Henri Queuille
– Minister of Agriculture Georges Mandel
Georges Mandel
– Minister of Colonies Ludovic-Oscar Frossard
Ludovic-Oscar Frossard
– Minister of Public Works Marc Rucart
Marc Rucart
– Minister of Public Health Alfred Jules-Julien – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones Fernand Gentin – Minister of Commerce

Changes

23 August 1938 – Charles Pomaret succeeds Ramadier as Minister of Labour. Anatole de Monzie succeeds Frossard as Minister of Public Works. 1 November 1938 – Paul Reynaud
Paul Reynaud
succeeds Paul Marchandeau
Paul Marchandeau
as Minister of Finance. Marchandeau succeeds Reynaud as Minister of Justice. 13 September 1939 – Georges Bonnet
Georges Bonnet
succeeds Marchandeau as Minister of Justice. Daladier succeeds Bonnet as Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining also Minister of National Defence and War. Raymond Patenôtre leaves the Cabinet and the Position of Minister of National Economy is abolished. Alphonse Rio succeeds Chappedelaine as Minister of Merchant Marine. Yvon Delbos
Yvon Delbos
succeeds Zay as Minister of National Education. René Besse succeeds Champetier as Minister of Veterans and Pensioners. Raoul Dautry
Raoul Dautry
enters the Cabinet as Minister of Armaments. Georges Pernot
Georges Pernot
enters the Cabinet as Minister of Blockade.

See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Édouard Daladier

French Third Republic 6 February 1934 crisis

Endnotes[edit]

^ Bennett, Edward W. (1979). German Rearmament and the West, 1932-1933. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0691052697 ^ Stellman, Jeanne Mager (16 November 1998). "Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches". International Labour Organization – via Google Books.  ^ Shirer, William The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, 1969, Da Capo Press, pp. 339–340. ^ Jean-Paul Sartre, Le Sursis ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 234–235 ^ Keylor, William. "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 234 ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 235–236 ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 237 ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 page 238 ^ Keylor, William "France and the Illusion of American Support, 1919-1940" pages 204–244 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books: Providence 1998 pages 233–244 ^ Shirer, William The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, 1969, Da Capo Press, p. 529. ^ " Fort du Portalet
Fort du Portalet
Office de tourisme Vallée d'Aspe tourisme Parc National Pyrénées séjours balades randonnées". www.tourisme-aspe.com. 

References[edit]

Adamthwaite, Anthony France and the Coming of the Second World War 1936-1939, Frank Cass, London, United Kingdom, 1977. Cairns, John C. "Reflections on France, Britain and the Winter War Problem" pages 269–295 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5. Imlay, Talbot "France and the Phoney War, 1939-1940" pages 261–282 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6. Irvine, William "Domestic Politics and the Fall of France in 1940" pages 85–99 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5. Jackson, Peter "Intelligence and the End of Appeasement" pages 234–260 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6. Lacaze, Yvon “Daladier, Bonnet and the Decision-Making Process During the Munich Crisis, 1938” pages 215–233 from French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918-1940 The Decline and Fall of A Great Power edited by Robert Boyce, London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15039-6. Réau, Elisabeth du "Edouard Daladier: The Conduct of the War and the Beginnings of Defeat" pages 100–126 from The French Defeat of 1940 Reassessments edited by Joel Blatt Berghahn Books, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 1998, ISBN 1-57181-109-5. Shirer, William L. The Collapse of the Third Republic An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, Simon & Schuster, New York, New York, United States of America, 1969. Thomas, Martin "France and the Czechoslovak Crisis" pages 122–159 from The Munich Crisis 1938 Prelude to World War II
World War II
edited by Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, Frank Cass, London, United Kingdom, 1999. France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society by Charles Sowerine. Origins of the French Welfare State: The Struggle for Social

Reform in France, 1914–1947 by Paul V. Dutton

files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED046810.pdf

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Édouard Daladier.

In Defence of France a 1939 book by Daladier at archive.org

Political offices

Preceded by Jean Fabry Minister of Colonies 1924–1925 Succeeded by Orly André-Hesse

Preceded by Paul Painlevé Minister of War 1925 Succeeded by Paul Painlevé

Preceded by Yvon Delbos Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 1925–1926 Succeeded by Lucien Lamoureux

Preceded by Bertrand Nogaro Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 1926 Succeeded by Édouard Herriot

Preceded by Georges Pernot Minister of Public Works 1930 Succeeded by Georges Pernot

Preceded by Georges Pernot Minister of Public Works 1930–1931 Succeeded by Maurice Deligne

Preceded by Charles Guernier Minister of Public Works 1932 Succeeded by Georges Bonnet

Preceded by Joseph Paul-Boncour Minister of War 1932–1934 Succeeded by Jean Fabry

Preceded by Joseph Paul-Boncour President of the Council 1933 Succeeded by Albert Sarraut

Preceded by Camille Chautemps President of the Council 1934 Succeeded by Gaston Doumergue

Preceded by Joseph Paul-Boncour Minister of Foreign Affairs 1934 Succeeded by Louis Barthou

Preceded by — Vice President of the Council 1936–1937 Succeeded by Léon Blum

Preceded by Louis Maurin Minister of National Defence and War 1936–1940 Succeeded by Paul Reynaud

Preceded by Léon Blum Vice President of the Council 1938 Succeeded by Camille Chautemps

Preceded by Léon Blum President of the Council 1938–1940 Succeeded by Paul Reynaud

Preceded by Georges Bonnet Minister of Foreign Affairs 1939–1940 Succeeded by Paul Reynaud

Preceded by Paul Reynaud Minister of Foreign Affairs 1940 Succeeded by Paul Reynaud

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24647874 LCCN: n91035678 ISNI: 0000 0001 0879 5627 GND: 119022303 SUDOC: 02737923X BNF: cb121964450 (data) NLA: 35382513 Léonore: 19800035/1032/19

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