Âu Việt or Ouyue (Chinese: 甌越) were an ancient
Baiyue tribes living in what is today the
mountainous regions of northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and
northern Guangxi, China, since at least the third century BCE. In the
legends of the Tay people, the western part of Âu Việt's land
became the Nam Cương Kingdom, whose capital was located in what
is today the
Cao Bằng Province
Cao Bằng Province of Northeast Vietnam. In
eastern China, the Ouyue established the
Dong'ou or Eastern Ou
kingdom. The Western Ou (西甌; pinyin: Xī Ōu; Tây meaning
Baiyue tribes, with short hair and tattoos, who
blackened their teeth and are the ancestors of the upland
Tai-speaking minority groups in
Vietnam such as the Nùng and
Tay, as well as the closely related
Zhuang people of Guangxi.
Âu Việt traded with the Lạc Việt, the inhabitants of the
state of Văn Lang, located in the lowland plains to Âu Việt's
south, in what is today the
Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, until
258 BC or 257 BC, when Thục Phán, the leader of an alliance of Âu
Việt tribes, invaded
Văn Lang and defeated the last Hùng king. He
named the new nation "Âu Lạc", proclaiming himself "An Dương
Vương" ("King An Dương").
Qin dynasty conquered the state of Chu, unifying China. Qin
abolished the noble status of the royal descendants of the state of
Yue. After some years,
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang sent an army of 500,000 to
conquer the West Ou, began a three-year guerrilla war and killed their
Before the Han dynasty, the East and West Ou regained independence.
The Eastern Ou was attacked by the
Minyue Kingdom, and Emperor Wu of
Han allowed them to move to between the
Yangtze and the Huai River.
The Western Ou paid tribute to
Nanyue until it was conquered by the
Han. Descendants of these kings later lost their royal status. Ou
(區), Ou (歐) and Ouyang (歐陽) remain as family names.
^ "Cao Bằng và bí ẩn nơi thành cổ Bản Phủ". Retrieved
^ a b c Chapuis, Oscar (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to
Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 13–14.
^ Vinh Phúc Nguyêñ Historical and cultural sites around Hanoi
Thé̂ Giới Publishers, 2000 p24, 25 "became the king both of the
Âu Việt and Âu Lạc"
^ Anh Tuấn Hoàng Silk for Silver: Dutch-Vietnamese Relations,
1637-1700 Page 12 2007 "people of Lạc Việt."
^ Sterling, Eleanor J.; Hurley, Martha Maud; Minh, Le Duc; Le, Minh
Duc; Powzyk, Joyce A. (2006). Vietnam: a natural history. Yale
University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-300-10608-4.
^ Stevenson, John; Guy, John; Cort, Louise Allison (1997). Vietnamese
ceramics: a separate tradition. Art Media Resources with Avery Press.
Huainanzi 卷18, 人間訓