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Zoospore
A zoospore is a motile asexual spore that uses a flagellum for locomotion. Also called a swarm spore, these spores are created by some protists, bacteria and fungi to propagate themselves. Diversity Flagella types Zoospores may possess one or more distinct types of flagella: ''tinsel'' or "decorated", and ''whiplash'', in various combinations. *''Tinsellated'' (also known as ''straminipilous'') flagella have lateral filaments known as mastigonemes perpendicular to the main axis which allow for more surface area, and disturbance of the medium, giving it the property of a rudder, that is, the purpose of being used for steering. *''Whiplash'' flagella are straight, to power the zoospore through its medium. There is also the 'default' zoospore, which only has the propelling, 'whiplash' flagella. Both ''tinsel'' and ''whiplash'' flagella beat in a sinusoidal wave pattern, but when both are present, the tinsel will beat in the opposite direction of the whiplash, to give 2 axes of contro ...
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Zoospores Types
A zoospore is a motile asexual spore that uses a flagellum for locomotion. Also called a swarm spore, these spores are created by some protists, bacteria and fungi to propagate themselves. Diversity Flagella types Zoospores may possess one or more distinct types of flagella: ''tinsel'' or "decorated", and ''whiplash'', in various combinations. *''Tinsellated'' (also known as ''straminipilous'') flagella have lateral filaments known as mastigonemes perpendicular to the main axis which allow for more surface area, and disturbance of the medium, giving it the property of a rudder, that is, the purpose of being used for steering. *''Whiplash'' flagella are straight, to power the zoospore through its medium. There is also the 'default' zoospore, which only has the propelling, 'whiplash' flagella. Both ''tinsel'' and ''whiplash'' flagella beat in a sinusoidal wave pattern, but when both are present, the tinsel will beat in the opposite direction of the whiplash, to give 2 axes of contro ...
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Chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycota are a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids. The name is derived from the Greek χυτρίδιον ''chytridion'', meaning "little pot", describing the structure containing unreleased zoospores. Chytrids are one of the early diverging fungal lineages, and their membership in kingdom Fungi is demonstrated with chitin cell walls, a posterior whiplash flagellum, absorptive nutrition, use of glycogen as an energy storage compound, and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway.Kendrick, Bryce. 2000. The Fifth Kingdom. 3rd edition Focus Publishing: Newburyport, MA. Chytrids are saprobic, degrading refractory materials such as chitin and keratin, and sometimes act as parasites.Sparrow FK. 1960. Aquatic Phycomyetes. The University of Michigan Press:Ann Arbor. 2nd edition There has been a significant increase in the research of chytrids since the discovery of ''Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis'', the causal agent ...
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Opisthokont
The opisthokonts (Greek: (''opísthios'')="rear, posterior" + (''kontós'')="pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms. The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/Metazoa group", are generally recognized as a clade. Opisthokonts together with Apusomonadida and Breviata comprise the larger clade Obazoa. Flagella and other characteristics A common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi, propel themselves with a single ''posterior'' flagellum. It is this feature that gives the group its name. In contrast, flagellate cells in other eukaryote groups propel themselves with one or more ''anterior'' flagella. However, in some opisthokont groups, including most of the fungi, flagellate cells have been lost. Opisthokont characteristics include synthesis of extracellular chitin in exoskeleton, cyst/spore wall, or cell wall of filamentous ...
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Spore
)'', growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar ''(Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the calyptra (1) is still attached to the capsule (2). The tops of the gametophytes (3) can be discerned as well. Inset shows the surrounding, black poplars growing on sandy loam on the bank of a kolk, with the detail area marked. In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from ...
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Oomycota
Oomycota or oomycetes () form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. They are filamentous and heterotrophic, and can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Sexual reproduction of an oospore is the result of contact between hyphae of male antheridia and female oogonia; these spores can overwinter and are known as resting spores. Asexual reproduction involves the formation of chlamydospores and sporangia, producing motile zoospores. Oomycetes occupy both saprophytic and pathogenic lifestyles, and include some of the most notorious pathogens of plants, causing devastating diseases such as late blight of potato and sudden oak death. One oomycete, the mycoparasite ''Pythium oligandrum'', is used for biocontrol, attacking plant pathogenic fungi. The oomycetes are also often referred to as water molds (or water moulds), although the water-preferring nature which led to that name is not true of most species, which are terrestrial pathogens. Oomycetes were ...
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Hyphochytriomycetes
Hyphochytrids are eukaryotic organisms in the group of Stramenopiles (Heterokonta). Characteristics They are distinguished by an anterior tinsel flagellum on their zoospores. Also they have a rhizoidal or hypha-like vegetative system (hence the prefix "Hypho-"). Classification This group may be put alternatively at the phylum, class, subclass or order level, being referred to as Hyphochytriomycota, Hyphochytriomycetes (or Hyphochytrea), Hyphochytriomycetidae (or Hyphochytridae) and Hyphochytriales, respectively. The variants Hyphochytri''di''omycota and Hyphochytri''di''omycetes are also sometimes used, presumably by analogy to the Chytridiomycetes, or due to the perpetuation of a typographical error. However, the stem is Hyphochytri- (from ''Hyphochytrium'') and not Hyphochytridi- (from ''Chytridium''). In the past the classes Hyphochytridiomycetes, Oomycetes and Chytridiomycetes were grouped together in the now obsolete taxon Mastigomycotina as fungi with flagellate spores or ...
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Gametangium
A gametangium (plural: gametangia) is an organ or cell in which gametes are produced that is found in many multicellular protists, algae, fungi, and the gametophytes of plants. In contrast to gametogenesis in animals, a gametangium is a haploid structure and formation of gametes does not involve meiosis. Types of gametangia Depending on the type of gamete produced in a gametangium, several types can be distinguished. Female Female gametangia are most commonly called archegonia. They produce egg cells and are the sites for fertilization. Archegonia are common in algae and primitive plants as well as gymnosperms. In flowering plants, they are replaced by the embryo sac inside the ovule. Male {{Main|Antheridium The male gametangia are most commonly called antheridia. They produce sperm cells that they release for fertilization. Antheridia producing non-motile sperm (spermatia) are called spermatangia. Some antheridia do not release their sperm. For example, the oomycete antheridium ...
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Flagellum
A flagellum (; plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain cells termed as flagellates. A flagellate can have one or several flagella. The primary function of a flagellum is that of locomotion, but it also often functions as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell. Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than structure. Flagella vary greatly among the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. All three kinds of flagella can be used for swimming but they differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion. The word ''flagellum'' in Latin means whip. The flagella of archaea have a special name, archaellum, to emphasize its difference from bacterial flagella. An example of a flagellated bacterium is the ulcer-causing ''Helicobacter pylori'', which uses multiple flagella to propel itself through the mucus lining to reach the stomach epithelium. ...
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Fern
A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase. Ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns. They produce coiled fiddleheads that uncoil and expand into fronds. The group includes about 10,560 known extant species. Ferns are defined here in the broad sense, being all of the Polypodiopsida, comprising both the leptosporangiate (Polypodiidae) and eusporangiate ferns, the latter group including horsetails or scouring rushes, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns. Ferns first appear in the fossil record about 360 million years ago in the middle Devonian period, bu ...
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Angiosperm
The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within their seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, ''angiosperm'' means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words ("case" or "casing") and (seed) The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from the common ancestor of all living gymnosperms during the Carboniferous, over 300 million years ago, with the earliest record of angiosperm pollen appearing around 134 million years ago. The first remains of flowering plants are known from 125 million years ago. They diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became wide ...
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Sporangium
'' mold asexual sporophyte generation) leaf Image:Equisetum arvense sporangia.jpg|200px|''Equisetum arvense'' [[strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from [[Ancient Greek language|Greek ''σπόρος ()'' ‘spore’ + ''ἀγγεῖον ()'' ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which [[spores are formed. It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular. All [[plants, fungi, and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia can produce spores by mitosis, but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically distinct haploid spores. Fungi In some phyla of fungi, the sporangium plays a role in asexual reproduction, and may play an indirect role in sexual reproduction. The sporangium forms on the sporangiophore and contains haploid nuclei and cytoplasm. Spores are formed in the sporangiophore by encasing each haploid nucleus and cytoplasm in a ...
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Heterokont
Heterokonts are a group of protists (formally referred to as Heterokonta, Heterokontae or Heterokontophyta). The group is a major line of eukaryotes. Most are algae, ranging from the giant multicellular kelp to the unicellular diatoms, which are a primary component of plankton. Other notable members of the Stramenopiles include the (generally) parasitic oomycetes, including ''Phytophthora'' of Great Famine of Ireland infamy and ''Pythium'' which causes seed rot and damping off. The name "heterokont" refers to the type of motile life cycle stage, in which the flagellated cells possess two differently arranged flagella (see zoospore). History In 1899, Alexander Luther created "Heterokontae" for some algae with unequal flagella, today called Xanthophyceae. Later, some authors (e.g., Copeland, 1956) would include other groups in Heterokonta, expanding its sense. The term continues to be applied in different ways, leading to Heterokontophyta being applied also to the phylum Ochroph ...
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Plasmodiophoromycota
220px|Clubroot on cauliflower The Phytomyxea are a class of parasites of plants. They are divided into the orders Plasmodiophorida (ICZN, or Plasmodiophoromycota, ICBN) and Phagomyxida. A more common name for them is the plasmodiophorids, but this does not always include ''Phagomyxa'' (see taxobox). Life cycle They typically develop within plant cells, causing the infected tissue to grow into a gall or scab. Important diseases caused by phytomyxeans include club root in cabbage and its relatives, and powdery scab in potatoes. These are caused by species of ''Plasmodiophora'' and ''Spongospora'', respectively.Agrios, George N. (2005). ''Plant Pathology''. 5th ed. Academic Presslink The vegetative form is a multinucleate cell, called a plasmodium. This ultimately divides to form new spores, which are released when the host's cells burst. Both resting spores and motile zoospores, which generally have two smooth flagella, are produced at different stages. Within the plasmodium, d ...
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Myxogastria
Myxogastria/Myxogastrea (myxogastrids, ICZN) or Myxomycetes (ICBN), is a class of slime molds that contains 5 orders, 14 families, 62 genera, and 888 species. They are colloquially known as the ''plasmodial'' or ''acellular'' slime moulds. All species pass through several, very different morphologic phases, such as microscopic individual cells, slimy amorphous organisms visible with the naked eye and conspicuously shaped fruit bodies. Although they are monocellular, they can reach immense widths and weights: in extreme cases they can be up to across and weigh up to . The class Myxogastria is distributed worldwide, but it is more common in temperate regions where it has a higher biodiversity than in polar regions, the subtropics or tropics. They are mainly found in open forests, but also in extreme regions such as deserts, under snow blankets or underwater. They also occur on the bark of trees, sometimes high in the canopy. These are known as corticolous myxo ...
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Neocallimastigales
Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum containing anaerobic fungi, which are symbionts found in the digestive tracts of larger herbivores. Anaerobic fungi were originally placed within phylum Chytridiomycota, within Order Neocallimastigales but later raised to phylum level, a decision upheld by later phylogenetic reconstructions. It encompasses only one family. Discovery The fungi in Neocallimastigomycota were first recognised as fungi by Orpin in 1975, based on motile cells present in the rumen of sheep. Their zoospores had been observed much earlier but were believed to be flagellate protists, but Orpin demonstrated that they possessed a chitin cell wall. It has since been shown that they are fungi related to the core chytrids. Prior to this, the microbial population of the rumen was believed to consist only of bacteria and protozoa. Since their discovery they have been isolated from the digestive tracts of over 50 herbivores, including ruminant and non-ruminant (hindgut-fermenting) ...
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