Zero Ring
In ring theory, a branch of mathematics, the zero ring or trivial ring is the unique ring (up to isomorphism) consisting of one element. (Less commonly, the term "zero ring" is used to refer to any rng of square zero, i.e., a rng in which for all ''x'' and ''y''. This article refers to the oneelement ring.) In the category of rings, the zero ring is the terminal object, whereas the ring of integers Z is the initial object. Definition The zero ring, denoted or simply 0, consists of the oneelement set with the operations + and · defined such that 0 + 0 = 0 and 0 · 0 = 0. Properties * The zero ring is the unique ring in which the additive identity 0 and multiplicative identity 1 coincide. (Proof: If in a ring ''R'', then for all ''r'' in ''R'', we have . The proof of the last equality is found here.) * The zero ring is commutative. * The element 0 in the zero ring is a unit, serving as its own multiplicative inverse. * The unit group of the zero ring is the trivial gr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Theory
In algebra, ring theory is the study of rings— algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those operations defined for the integers. Ring theory studies the structure of rings, their representations, or, in different language, modules, special classes of rings (group rings, division rings, universal enveloping algebras), as well as an array of properties that proved to be of interest both within the theory itself and for its applications, such as homological algebra, homological properties and Polynomial identity ring, polynomial identities. Commutative rings are much better understood than noncommutative ones. Algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory, which provide many natural examples of commutative rings, have driven much of the development of commutative ring theory, which is now, under the name of ''commutative algebra'', a major area of modern mathematics. Because these three fields (algebraic geometry, alge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Divisor
In abstract algebra, an element of a ring is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that , or equivalently if the map from to that sends to is not injective. Similarly, an element of a ring is called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that . This is a partial case of divisibility in rings. An element that is a left or a right zero divisor is simply called a zero divisor. An element that is both a left and a right zero divisor is called a twosided zero divisor (the nonzero such that may be different from the nonzero such that ). If the ring is commutative, then the left and right zero divisors are the same. An element of a ring that is not a left zero divisor is called left regular or left cancellable. Similarly, an element of a ring that is not a right zero divisor is called right regular or right cancellable. An element of a ring that is left and right cancellable, and is hence not a zero divisor, is called regu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Local Ring
In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic number fields examined at a particular place, or prime. Local algebra is the branch of commutative algebra that studies commutative local rings and their modules. In practice, a commutative local ring often arises as the result of the localization of a ring at a prime ideal. The concept of local rings was introduced by Wolfgang Krull in 1938 under the name ''Stellenringe''. The English term ''local ring'' is due to Zariski. Definition and first consequences A ring ''R'' is a local ring if it has any one of the following equivalent properties: * ''R'' has a unique maximal left ideal. * ''R'' has a unique maximal right ideal. * 1 ≠ 0 and the sum of any two nonunits in ''R'' is a nonunit. * 1 ≠ 0 and if ''x'' is any element of ''R ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinal Number
In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets. The cardinality of a finite set is a natural number: the number of elements in the set. The ''transfinite'' cardinal numbers, often denoted using the Hebrew symbol \aleph ( aleph) followed by a subscript, describe the sizes of infinite sets. Cardinality is defined in terms of bijective functions. Two sets have the same cardinality if, and only if, there is a onetoone correspondence (bijection) between the elements of the two sets. In the case of finite sets, this agrees with the intuitive notion of size. In the case of infinite sets, the behavior is more complex. A fundamental theorem due to Georg Cantor shows that it is possible for infinite sets to have different cardinalities, and in particular the cardinality of the set of real numbers is greater than the cardinality of the set of natural numbers. It is also possible for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the module conc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Characteristic (algebra)
In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring (mathematics), ring , often denoted , is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's identity element, multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0). If this sum never reaches the additive identity the ring is said to have characteristic zero. That is, is the smallest positive number such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 if such a number exists, and otherwise. Motivation The special definition of the characteristic zero is motivated by the equivalent definitions characterized in the next section, where the characteristic zero is not required to be considered separately. The characteristic may also be taken to be the exponent (group theory), exponent of the ring's additive group, that is, the smallest positive integer such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 for every element of the ring (again, if exists; otherwise zero). Some authors do not include the multiplicative identity element in their r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subring
In mathematics, a subring of ''R'' is a subset of a ring that is itself a ring when binary operations of addition and multiplication on ''R'' are restricted to the subset, and which shares the same multiplicative identity as ''R''. For those who define rings without requiring the existence of a multiplicative identity, a subring of ''R'' is just a subset of ''R'' that is a ring for the operations of ''R'' (this does imply it contains the additive identity of ''R''). The latter gives a strictly weaker condition, even for rings that do have a multiplicative identity, so that for instance all ideals become subrings (and they may have a multiplicative identity that differs from the one of ''R''). With definition requiring a multiplicative identity (which is used in this article), the only ideal of ''R'' that is a subring of ''R'' is ''R'' itself. Definition A subring of a ring is a subset ''S'' of ''R'' that preserves the structure of the ring, i.e. a ring with . Equivalently, it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Homomorphism
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a structurepreserving function between two rings. More explicitly, if ''R'' and ''S'' are rings, then a ring homomorphism is a function such that ''f'' is: :addition preserving: ::f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :multiplication preserving: ::f(ab)=f(a)f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :and unit (multiplicative identity) preserving: ::f(1_R)=1_S. Additive inverses and the additive identity are part of the structure too, but it is not necessary to require explicitly that they too are respected, because these conditions are consequences of the three conditions above. If in addition ''f'' is a bijection, then its inverse ''f''−1 is also a ring homomorphism. In this case, ''f'' is called a ring isomorphism, and the rings ''R'' and ''S'' are called ''isomorphic''. From the standpoint of ring theory, isomorphic rings cannot be distinguished. If ''R'' and ''S'' are rngs, then the cor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain (ring Theory)
In algebra, a domain is a nonzero ring in which implies or .Lam (2001), p. 3 (Sometimes such a ring is said to "have the zeroproduct property".) Equivalently, a domain is a ring in which 0 is the only left zero divisor (or equivalently, the only right zero divisor). A commutative domain is called an integral domain. Mathematical literature contains multiple variants of the definition of "domain".Some authors also consider the zero ring to be a domain: see Polcino M. & Sehgal (2002), p. 65. Some authors apply the term "domain" also to rngs with the zeroproduct property; such authors consider ''n''Z to be a domain for each positive integer ''n'': see Lanski (2005), p. 343. But integral domains are always required to be nonzero and to have a 1. Examples and nonexamples * The ring Z/6Z is not a domain, because the images of 2 and 3 in this ring are nonzero elements with product 0. More generally, for a positive integer ''n'', the ring Z/''n''Z is a domain if and only i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term entir ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field With One Element
In mathematics, the field with one element is a suggestive name for an object that should behave similarly to a finite field with a single element, if such a field could exist. This object is denoted F1, or, in a French–English pun, Fun. The name "field with one element" and the notation F1 are only suggestive, as there is no field with one element in classical abstract algebra. Instead, F1 refers to the idea that there should be a way to replace sets and operations, the traditional building blocks for abstract algebra, with other, more flexible objects. Many theories of F1 have been proposed, but it is not clear which, if any, of them give F1 all the desired properties. While there is still no field with a single element in these theories, there is a fieldlike object whose characteristic is one. Most proposed theories of F1 replace abstract algebra entirely. Mathematical objects such as vector spaces and polynomial rings can be carried over into these new theories by mimicking ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 