Strong Epimorphism
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is rightcancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Epimorphism Scenarios
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is rightcancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism" w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indicator Function
In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function of a subset of a set is a function that maps elements of the subset to one, and all other elements to zero. That is, if is a subset of some set , one has \mathbf_(x)=1 if x\in A, and \mathbf_(x)=0 otherwise, where \mathbf_A is a common notation for the indicator function. Other common notations are I_A, and \chi_A. The indicator function of is the Iverson bracket of the property of belonging to ; that is, :\mathbf_(x)= \in A For example, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function of the rational numbers as a subset of the real numbers. Definition The indicator function of a subset of a set is a function \mathbf_A \colon X \to \ defined as \mathbf_A(x) := \begin 1 ~&\text~ x \in A~, \\ 0 ~&\text~ x \notin A~. \end The Iverson bracket provides the equivalent notation, \in A/math> or to be used instead of \mathbf_(x)\,. The function \mathbf_A is sometimes denoted , , , or even just . Nota ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The symbo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Abelian Groups
In mathematics, the category Ab has the abelian groups as objects and group homomorphisms as morphisms. This is the prototype of an abelian category: indeed, every small abelian category can be embedded in Ab. Properties The zero object of Ab is the trivial group which consists only of its neutral element. The monomorphisms in Ab are the injective group homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are the surjective group homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are the bijective group homomorphisms. Ab is a full subcategory of Grp, the category of ''all'' groups. The main difference between Ab and Grp is that the sum of two homomorphisms ''f'' and ''g'' between abelian groups is again a group homomorphism: :(''f''+''g'')(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x''+''y'') + ''g''(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''g''(''y'') : = ''f''(''x'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''y'') = (''f''+''g'')(''x'') + (''f''+''g'')(''y'') The third e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Groups
Finite is the opposite of infinite. It may refer to: * Finite number (other) * Finite set, a set whose cardinality (number of elements) is some natural number * Finite verb, a verb form that has a subject, usually being inflected or marked for person and/or tense or aspect * "Finite", a song by Sara Groves from the album '' Invisible Empires'' See also * * Nonfinite (other) Nonfinite is the opposite of finite * a nonfinite verb is a verb that is not capable of serving as the main verb in an independent clause * a nonfinite clause In linguistics, a nonfinite clause is a dependent or embedded clause that represen ... {{disambiguation fr:Fini it:Finito ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Product
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the free product is an operation that takes two groups ''G'' and ''H'' and constructs a new The result contains both ''G'' and ''H'' as subgroups, is generated by the elements of these subgroups, and is the “universal” group having these properties, in the sense that any two homomorphisms from ''G'' and ''H'' into a group ''K'' factor uniquely through a homomorphism from to ''K''. Unless one of the groups ''G'' and ''H'' is trivial, the free product is always infinite. The construction of a free product is similar in spirit to the construction of a free group (the universal group with a given set of generators). The free product is the coproduct in the category of groups. That is, the free product plays the same role in group theory that disjoint union plays in set theory, or that the direct sum plays in module theory. Even if the groups are commutative, their free product is not, unless one of the two groups is the trivial grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equaliser (mathematics)
In mathematics, an equaliser is a set of arguments where two or more functions have equal values. An equaliser is the solution set of an equation. In certain contexts, a difference kernel is the equaliser of exactly two functions. Definitions Let ''X'' and ''Y'' be sets. Let ''f'' and ''g'' be functions, both from ''X'' to ''Y''. Then the ''equaliser'' of ''f'' and ''g'' is the set of elements ''x'' of ''X'' such that ''f''(''x'') equals ''g''(''x'') in ''Y''. Symbolically: : \operatorname(f, g) := \. The equaliser may be denoted Eq(''f'', ''g'') or a variation on that theme (such as with lowercase letters "eq"). In informal contexts, the notation is common. The definition above used two functions ''f'' and ''g'', but there is no need to restrict to only two functions, or even to only finitely many functions. In general, if F is a set of functions from ''X'' to ''Y'', then the ''equaliser'' of the members of F is the set of elements ''x'' of ''X'' such that, given any tw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subgroup
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group ''G'' under a binary operation ∗, a subset ''H'' of ''G'' is called a subgroup of ''G'' if ''H'' also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'' if the restriction of ∗ to is a group operation on ''H''. This is often denoted , read as "''H'' is a subgroup of ''G''". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group ''G'' is a subgroup ''H'' which is a proper subset of ''G'' (that is, ). This is often represented notationally by , read as "''H'' is a proper subgroup of ''G''". Some authors also exclude the trivial group from being proper (that is, ). If ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'', then ''G'' is sometimes called an overgroup of ''H''. The same definitions apply more generally when ''G'' is an arbitrary semigroup, but this article will only deal with subgroups of groups. Subgroup tests Suppose th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Otto Schreier
Otto Schreier (3 March 1901 in Vienna, Austria – 2 June 1929 in Hamburg, Germany) was a JewishAustrian mathematician who made major contributions in combinatorial group theory and in the topology of Lie groups. Life His parents were the architect Theodor Schreier (18731943) and his wife Anna (b. Turnau) (18781942). From 1920 Otto Schreier studied at the University of Vienna and took classes with Wilhelm Wirtinger, Philipp Furtwängler, Hans Hahn, Kurt Reidemeister, Leopold Vietoris, and Josef Lense. In 1923 he obtained his doctorate, under the supervision of Philipp Furtwängler, entitled ''On the expansion of groups (Über die Erweiterung von Gruppen)''. In 1926 he completed his habilitation with Emil Artin at the University of Hamburg ''(Die Untergruppen der freien Gruppe. Abhandlungen des Mathematischen Seminars der Universität Hamburg, Band 5, 1927, Seiten 172–179)'', where he had also given lectures before. In 1928 he became a professor at the University of Rost ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Homomorphism
In mathematics, given two groups, (''G'', ∗) and (''H'', ·), a group homomorphism from (''G'', ∗) to (''H'', ·) is a function ''h'' : ''G'' → ''H'' such that for all ''u'' and ''v'' in ''G'' it holds that : h(u*v) = h(u) \cdot h(v) where the group operation on the left side of the equation is that of ''G'' and on the right side that of ''H''. From this property, one can deduce that ''h'' maps the identity element ''eG'' of ''G'' to the identity element ''eH'' of ''H'', : h(e_G) = e_H and it also maps inverses to inverses in the sense that : h\left(u^\right) = h(u)^. \, Hence one can say that ''h'' "is compatible with the group structure". Older notations for the homomorphism ''h''(''x'') may be ''x''''h'' or ''x''''h'', though this may be confused as an index or a general subscript. In automata theory, sometimes homomorphisms are written to the right of their arguments without parentheses, so that ''h''(''x'') becomes simply xh. In areas of mathematics where one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a Set (mathematics), set and an Binary operation, operation that combines any two Element (mathematics), elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is Associative property, associative, an identity element exists and every element has an Inverse element, inverse. These three axioms hold for Number#Main classification, number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Groups
In mathematics, the category Grp (or Gp) has the class of all groups for objects and group homomorphisms for morphisms. As such, it is a concrete category. The study of this category is known as group theory. Relation to other categories There are two forgetful functors from Grp, M: Grp → Mon from groups to monoids and U: Grp → Set from groups to sets. M has two adjoints: one right, I: Mon→Grp, and one left, K: Mon→Grp. I: Mon→Grp is the functor sending every monoid to the submonoid of invertible elements and K: Mon→Grp the functor sending every monoid to the Grothendieck group of that monoid. The forgetful functor U: Grp → Set has a left adjoint given by the composite KF: Set→Mon→Grp, where F is the free functor; this functor assigns to every set ''S'' the free group on ''S.'' Categorical properties The monomorphisms in Grp are precisely the injective homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are precisely the surjective homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are precise ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 