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Parabasalids
The parabasalids are a group of flagellated protists within the supergroup Excavata. Most of these eukaryotic organisms form a symbiotic relationship in animals. These include a variety of forms found in the intestines of termites and cockroaches, many of which have symbiotic bacteria that help them digest cellulose in woody plants. Other species within this supergroup are known parasites, and include human pathogens. Characteristics The flagella are arranged in one or more clusters near the anterior of the cell. Their basal bodies are linked to parabasal fibers that attach to prominent Golgi complexes, distinctive to the group. Usually they also give rise to a sheet of cross-like microtubules that runs down the center of the cell and in some cases projects past the end. This is called the axostyle, but is different in structure from the axostyles of oxymonads. Parabasalids are anaerobic, and lack mitochondria, but this is now known to be a result of secondary loss, and they ...
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Parabasalia Cell Scheme
The parabasalids are a group of flagellated protists within the supergroup Excavata. Most of these eukaryotic organisms form a symbiotic relationship in animals. These include a variety of forms found in the intestines of termites and cockroaches, many of which have symbiotic bacteria that help them digest cellulose in woody plants. Other species within this supergroup are known parasites, and include human pathogens. Characteristics The flagella are arranged in one or more clusters near the anterior of the cell. Their basal bodies are linked to parabasal fibers that attach to prominent Golgi complexes, distinctive to the group. Usually they also give rise to a sheet of cross-like microtubules that runs down the center of the cell and in some cases projects past the end. This is called the axostyle, but is different in structure from the axostyles of oxymonads. Parabasalids are anaerobic, and lack mitochondria, but this is now known to be a result of secondary loss, and they ...
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Metamonad
The metamonads are microscopic eukaryotic organisms, a large group of flagellate amitochondriate Loukozoa. Their composition is not entirely settled, but they include the retortamonads, diplomonads, and possibly the parabasalids and oxymonads as well. These four groups are all anaerobic, occurring mostly as symbiotes or parasites of animals, as is the case with ''Giardia lamblia'' which causes diarrhea in mice. Characteristics A number of parabasalids and oxymonads are found in termite guts, and play an important role in breaking down the cellulose found in wood. Some other metamonads are parasites. These flagellates are unusual in lacking mitochondria. Originally they were considered among the most primitive eukaryotes, diverging from the others before mitochondria appeared. However, they are now known to have lost mitochondria secondarily, and retain both organelles and nuclear genes derived from them. Mitochondrial relics include hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen, an ...
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Mitochondrion
A mitochondrion (, plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms lack mitochondria (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. One eukaryote, ''Monocercomonoides'', is known to have completely lost its mitochondria, and one multicellular organism, ''Henneguya salminicola'', is known to have retained mitochondrion-related organelles in association with a complete loss of their mitochondrial genome. Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. A mitochondrion is thus termed the ''powerhouse'' of the cell. Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm² in area but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visib ...
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Trichomonadida
Trichomonadida is an order of anaerobic protists, included with the parabasalids. Members of this order are referred to as trichomonads. Some organisms in this order include: *''Trichomonas vaginalis'', an organism living inside the vagina of humans *''Dientamoeba fragilis'', parasitic ameboid in humans *''Histomonas meleagridis'', parasite that causes blackhead disease in poultry *''Mixotricha paradoxa'', a symbiotic organism inside termites, host of endosymbionts Anatomy Species in this order typically have four to six flagella at the cell's apical pole, one of which is recurrent - that is, it runs along a surface wave, giving the aspect of an undulating membrane. Like other parabasalids, they typically have an axostyle, a pelta, a costa, and parabasal bodies. In ''Histomonas'' only one flagellum and a reduced axostyle are found, and in ''Dientamoeba'', both are absent. Behavior Most species are either parasites or other endosymbionts of animals. Trichomonads reproduce ...
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Oxymonad
The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose. It includes ''Dinenympha'', ''Pyrsonympha'', and ''Oxymonas''. Characteristics Most Oxymonads are around 50 μm in size and have a single nucleus, associated with four flagella. Their basal bodies give rise to several long sheets of microtubules, which form an organelle called an axostyle, but different in structure from the axostyles of parabasalids. The cell may use the axostyle to swim, as the sheets slide past one another and cause it to undulate. An associated fiber called the preaxostyle separates the flagella into two pairs. A few oxymonads have multiple nuclei, flagella, and axostyles. Relationship to Trimastix The free-living flagellate ''Trimastix'' is closely related to the oxymonads. It lacks mitochondria and ...
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Cellulose
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%. Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton. Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbio ...
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Hydrogenosome
A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in some anaerobic ciliates, flagellates, and fungi. Hydrogenosomes are highly variable organelles that have presumably evolved from mitochondria to produce molecular hydrogen and ATP in anaerobic conditions. Hydrogenosomes were discovered in 1973 by D. G. Lindmark and M. Müller. Due to the fact that hydrogenosomes hold evolutionary lineage significance for organisms living in anaerobic or oxygen-stressed environments, many research institutions have since documented their findings on how the organelle differs in various sources. History Hydrogenosomes were isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and named in the early 1970s by D. G. Lindmark and M. Müller at Rockefeller University. In addition to this seminal study on hydrogenosomes, they also demonstrated for the first time the presence of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase and hydrogenase in eukaryotes. Further studies were subsequently conducted on the biochemica ...
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Anaerobic Organism
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if free oxygen is present. In contrast, an aerobic organism (aerobe) is an organism that requires an oxygenated environment. Anaerobes may be unicellular (e.g. protozoans, bacteria) or multicellular. Most fungi are obligate aerobes, requiring oxygen to survive, however some species, such as the Chytridiomycota that reside in the rumen of cattle, are obligate anaerobes; for these species, anaerobic respiration is used because oxygen will disrupt their metabolism or kill them. Deep waters of the ocean are a common anoxic environment. First observation In his letter of 14 June 1680 to The Royal Society, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek described an experiment he carried out by filling two identical glass tubes about halfway with crushed pepper powder, to which some clean rain water was added. Van Leeuwenhoek sealed one of the glass tubes by using a flame and left the ...
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Axostyle
An axostyle is a sheet of microtubules found in certain protists. It arises from the bases of the flagella, sometimes projecting beyond the end of the cell, and is often flexible or contractile, and so may be involved in movement and provides support for the cell. Axostyles originate in association with a flagellar microtubular root and occur in two groups, the oxymonads and parabasalids; they have different structures and are not homologous. Within Trichomonads the axostyle has been theorised to participate in locomotion and cell adhesion, but also karyokinesis during cell division. References {{Protist Category:Cell biology ...
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Microtubule
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells. Microtubules can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of a microtubule is between 23 and 27 nm while the inner diameter is between 11 and 15 nm. They are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin into protofilaments that can then associate laterally to form a hollow tube, the microtubule. The most common form of a microtubule consists of 13 protofilaments in the tubular arrangement. Microtubules are very important in a number of cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton. They also make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella. They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, i ...
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Basal Bodies
), 4-Basal body, 5-Cross section of flagellum, 6-Triplets of microtubules of basal body. Image:Chlamydomonas TEM 09.jpg|Longitudinal section through the flagella area in ''[[Chlamydomonas reinhardtii''. In the cell apex is the basal body that is the anchoring site for a flagellum. Basal bodies originate from and have a substructure similar to that of centrioles, with nine peripheral microtubule triplets (see structure at bottom center of image). A basal body (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is a protein structure found at the base of a [[eukaryotic undulipodium (cilium or flagellum). It is formed from a centriole and several additional protein structures, and is, essentially, a modified centriole. The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are derived, act as anchoring sites for proteins that in turn anchor microtubules, and are known as ...
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Pathogen
In biology, a pathogen ( el|πάθος ''pathos'' "suffering", "passion" and -γενής ''-genēs'' "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense, is any organism that can produce disease. A pathogen may also be referred to as an infectious agent, or simply a germ. The term ''pathogen'' came into use in the 1880s. Typically, the term is used to describe an ''infectious'' microorganism or agent, such as a virus, bacterium, protozoan, prion, viroid, or fungus. Small animals, such as certain worms or insects, can also cause or transmit disease. However, these animals are usually, in common parlance, referred to as parasites rather than pathogens. The scientific study of microscopic organisms, including microscopic pathogenic organisms, is called microbiology, while parasitology refers to the scientific study of parasites and the organisms that host them. There are several pathways through which pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time fram ...
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Parasite
Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or inside another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life. The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one". Parasites include single-celled protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, mosquitoes, and vampire bats; fungi such as honey fungus and the agents of ringworm; and plants such as mistletoe, dodder, and the broomrapes. There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism (by contact), trophically transmitted parasitism (by being eaten), vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoidism, and micropredation. Like predation, parasitism is a type of consumer-resource interaction, but unlike predators, parasites, with ...
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