Oliguria
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Oliguria
Oliguria or hypouresis is the low output of urine specifically more than 80 ml/day but less than 400ml/day.Boon et al, Davidson's Principles & Practice of Medicine (20th Ed), p475 The decreased output of urine may be a sign of dehydration, kidney failure, hypovolemic shock, hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, urinary obstruction/urinary retention, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), pre-eclampsia, and urinary tract infections, among other conditions. Beyond oliguria is anuria, which represents an absence of urine, clinically classified as below 80 or 100 ml/day. The term oliguria is derived from ''oligo''-meaning "small, little," + -''uria'', from the Greek word ''ouron,'' meaning ''"''urine". Definition Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants,
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Sepsis
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disease or communicable disease, i ... causes injury to its own tissues and organs. This initial stage is followed by suppression of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biolog .... Common signs and symptoms include fever Fever, also referred to as pyrexia, is defined as having a above the due to an increase in the body's temperature . There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between in humans. The i ...
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Kidney Failure
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...s are functioning at less than 15% of normal levels. Kidney failure is classified as either acute kidney failure Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden decrease in kidney function that develops within 7 days, as shown by an increase in serum creatinine Creatinine ( or ; from el, κρέας, kreas, flesh) is a ..., which develops rapidly and may resolve; and chronic kidney failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also ...
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Anuria
Anuria is nonpassage of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and ..., in practice is defined as passage of less than 100Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19E PAGE 292 milliliter The litre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Englan ...s of urine in a day. Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...s. It m ...
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Hypovolemic Shock
Hypovolemic shock is a form of shock caused by severe hypovolemia Hypovolemia, also known as volume depletion or volume contraction, is a state of abnormally low extracellular fluid in the body. This may be due to either a loss of both salt and water or a decrease in blood volume. Hypovolemia refers to the loss ... (insufficient blood volume or extracellular fluid In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ... in the body). It could be the result of severe dehydration In physiology, dehydration is a lack of total body water In physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology Biology is the natural science that studies ... through a variety of mechanisms or blood loss Bleeding, ...
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Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is altered organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations ... intervention to achieve homeostasis In , homeostasis is the state of steady internal, , and conditions maintained by . This is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism and includes many variables, such as and , being kept within certain pre-set limits (homeostatic r .... Although Irwin and Rippe cautioned in 2005 that the use of "multiple organ failure" ...
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Pre-eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual repr ... characterized by the onset of high blood pressure Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund''A financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001'', Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank ... and often a significant amount of protein in the urine. When it arises, the condition begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the beginning of the woman's Menstruation#Onset and frequency, last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method i .... In severe cases of t ...
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Anuria
Anuria is nonpassage of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and ..., in practice is defined as passage of less than 100Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19E PAGE 292 milliliter The litre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Englan ...s of urine in a day. Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...s. It m ...
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Urine
Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, process or ; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste: for example, , whic ... of metabolism Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining ... in humans and in many other animals. Urine flows from the kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...s through the ureter The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It ...
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Rhabdomyolysis
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly. Symptoms may include myalgia, muscle pains, weakness, vomiting, and mental confusion, confusion. There may be tea-colored urine or an arrythmia, irregular heartbeat. Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to acute kidney injury, kidney failure. The muscle damage is most often the result of a Crush syndrome, crush injury, strenuous exercise, Pharmaceutical drug, medications, or a substance use disorder. Other causes include infections, electrical injury, heat stroke, prolonged immobilization, limb ischemia, lack of blood flow to a limb, or snake bites. Statins (prescription drugs to lower cholesterol) are considered a small risk. Some people have Heredity, inherited muscle conditions that increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis. The diagnosis is supported by a urine test strip which is positive for "blood" but the urine contains no ...
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Polyuria
Polyuria () is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage Passage may refer to: Places * Passage West, a town in County Cork, Ireland * Passage: 19th century English name for Pasaia (''Pasaje'', or ''Pasage'') People *Joseph Maldonado-Passage (born 1963), American former zoo operator and convicted fel ... of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and ... (greater than 2.5 L or 3 L over 24 hours in adults). Increased production and passage of urine may also be termed diuresis Diuresis () is increased urination Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. It is the urinary system's form of excretion. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, .... Polyuria often appears in conj ...
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Infant
An infant (from the Latin word ''infans'', meaning 'unable to speak' or 'speechless') is the more formal or specialised synonym for the common term ''baby'', meaning the very young offspring of human beings Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Humans are highly .... The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms. A newborn is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, ''neonatus'', newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature Premature may refer to: * ''Premature'' (2014 film), an American comedy film * Premature (2019 film), ''Premature'' (2019 film), an American romantic drama film * ''PREMature'', a 2015 British television ...
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Antidiuretic Hormone
Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone A hormone (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ... synthesized from the AVP gene Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) Gene is a gene whose product is Proteolysis, proteolytically cleaved to produce vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone, Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH), neurophysin II, and a glycoprotein called copeptin. AVP and othe ... as a peptide Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, ... prohormone A hormone (from the Greek participle , "setting in motion") is ...
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