Normed Spaces
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 picture info Normed Spaces In mathematics, a normed vector space or normed space is a vector space over the Real number, real or Complex number, complex numbers, on which a Norm (mathematics), norm is defined. A norm is the formalization and the generalization to real vector spaces of the intuitive notion of "length" in the real (physical) world. A norm is a real-valued function defined on the vector space that is commonly denoted x\mapsto \, x\, , and has the following properties: #It is nonnegative, meaning that \, x\, \geq 0 for every vector x. #It is positive on nonzero vectors, that is, \, x\, = 0 \text x = 0. # For every vector x, and every scalar \alpha, \, \alpha x\, = , \alpha, \, \, x\, . # The triangle inequality holds; that is, for every vectors x and y, \, x+y\, \leq \, x\, + \, y\, . A norm induces a Metric (mathematics), distance, called its , by the formula d(x,y) = \, y-x\, . which makes any normed vector space into a metric space and a topological vector space. If this metric spac ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematical Spaces Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Euclidean Vector Space Euclidean space is the fundamental space of geometry, intended to represent physical space. Originally, that is, in Euclid's ''Elements'', it was the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any positive integer dimension, including the three-dimensional space and the '' Euclidean plane'' (dimension two). The qualifier "Euclidean" is used to distinguish Euclidean spaces from other spaces that were later considered in physics and modern mathematics. Ancient Greek geometers introduced Euclidean space for modeling the physical space. Their work was collected by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in his ''Elements'', with the great innovation of '' proving'' all properties of the space as theorems, by starting from a few fundamental properties, called ''postulates'', which either were considered as evident (for example, there is exactly one straight line passing through two points), or seemed impossible to prove (par ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Complete Space In mathematical analysis, a metric space is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in has a limit that is also in . Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary). For instance, the set of rational numbers is not complete, because e.g. \sqrt is "missing" from it, even though one can construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers that converges to it (see further examples below). It is always possible to "fill all the holes", leading to the ''completion'' of a given space, as explained below. Definition Cauchy sequence A sequence x_1, x_2, x_3, \ldots in a metric space (X, d) is called Cauchy if for every positive real number r > 0 there is a positive integer N such that for all positive integers m, n > N, d\left(x_m, x_n\right) < r. Complete space A metric space $\left(X, d\right)$ is complete if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: :#Every [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Topological Structure In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topological s ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Limit Of A Function Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches zero, equals 1. In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input. Formal definitions, first devised in the early 19th century, are given below. Informally, a function ''f'' assigns an output ''f''(''x'') to every input ''x''. We say that the function has a limit ''L'' at an input ''p,'' if ''f''(''x'') gets closer and closer to ''L'' as ''x'' moves closer and closer to ''p''. More specifically, when ''f'' is applied to any input ''sufficiently'' close to ''p'', the output value is forced ''arbitrarily'' close to ''L''. On the other hand, if some inputs very close to ''p'' are taken to outputs that stay a fixed distance apart, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Continuous Function (topology) In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Pseudometric Space In mathematics, a pseudometric space is a generalization of a metric space in which the distance between two distinct points can be zero. Pseudometric spaces were introduced by Đuro Kurepa in 1934. In the same way as every normed space is a metric space, every seminormed space is a pseudometric space. Because of this analogy the term semimetric space (which has a different meaning in topology) is sometimes used as a synonym, especially in functional analysis. When a topology is generated using a family of pseudometrics, the space is called a gauge space. Definition A pseudometric space (X,d) is a set X together with a non-negative real-valued function d : X \times X \longrightarrow \R_, called a , such that for every x, y, z \in X, #d(x,x) = 0. #''Symmetry'': d(x,y) = d(y,x) #''Subadditivity''/''Triangle inequality'': d(x,z) \leq d(x,y) + d(y,z) Unlike a metric space, points in a pseudometric space need not be distinguishable; that is, one may have d(x, y) = 0 for distinct val ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Topology In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] P-adic Absolute Value In number theory, the valuation or -adic order of an integer is the exponent of the highest power of the prime number that divides . It is denoted \nu_p(n). Equivalently, \nu_p(n) is the exponent to which p appears in the prime factorization of n. The -adic valuation is a valuation and gives rise to an analogue of the usual absolute value. Whereas the completion of the rational numbers with respect to the usual absolute value results in the real numbers \mathbb, the completion of the rational numbers with respect to the p-adic absolute value results in the numbers \mathbb_p. Definition and properties Let be a prime number. Integers The -adic valuation of an integer n is defined to be : \nu_p(n)= \begin \mathrm\ & \text n \neq 0\\ \infty & \text n=0, \end where \mathbb denotes the set of natural numbers and m \mid n denotes divisibility of n by m. In particular, \nu_p is a function \nu_p \colon \mathbb \to \mathbb \cup\ . For example, \nu_2(-12) = 2, \nu_3(-12) = 1, and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Absolute Value In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the non-negative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive number, and , x, =-x if x is negative (in which case negating x makes -x positive), and For example, the absolute value of 3 and the absolute value of −3 is The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, an absolute value is also defined for the complex numbers, the quaternions, ordered rings, fields and vector spaces. The absolute value is closely related to the notions of magnitude, distance, and norm in various mathematical and physical contexts. Terminology and notation In 1806, Jean-Robert Argand introduced the term ''module'', meaning ''unit of measure'' in French, specifically for the ''complex'' absolute value,Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, June 2008 an ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Continuous Function In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the mo ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Triangle Inequality In mathematics, the triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side. This statement permits the inclusion of degenerate triangles, but some authors, especially those writing about elementary geometry, will exclude this possibility, thus leaving out the possibility of equality. If , , and are the lengths of the sides of the triangle, with no side being greater than , then the triangle inequality states that :z \leq x + y , with equality only in the degenerate case of a triangle with zero area. In Euclidean geometry and some other geometries, the triangle inequality is a theorem about distances, and it is written using vectors and vector lengths ( norms): :\, \mathbf x + \mathbf y\, \leq \, \mathbf x\, + \, \mathbf y\, , where the length of the third side has been replaced by the vector sum . When and are real numbers, they can be viewed as vectors in , and the trian ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]