Monomorphism
In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. A monomorphism from to is often denoted with the notation X\hookrightarrow Y. In the more general setting of category theory, a monomorphism (also called a monic morphism or a mono) is a leftcancellative morphism. That is, an arrow such that for all objects and all morphisms , : f \circ g_1 = f \circ g_2 \implies g_1 = g_2. Monomorphisms are a categorical generalization of injective functions (also called "onetoone functions"); in some categories the notions coincide, but monomorphisms are more general, as in the examples below. The categorical dual of a monomorphism is an epimorphism, that is, a monomorphism in a category ''C'' is an epimorphism in the dual category ''C''op. Every section is a monomorphism, and every retraction is an epimorphism. Relation to invertibility Leftinvertible morphisms are necessarily monic: if ''l'' is a left inverse for ''f'' (meanin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monomorphism Scenarios
In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. A monomorphism from to is often denoted with the notation X\hookrightarrow Y. In the more general setting of category theory, a monomorphism (also called a monic morphism or a mono) is a leftcancellative morphism. That is, an arrow such that for all objects and all morphisms , : f \circ g_1 = f \circ g_2 \implies g_1 = g_2. Monomorphisms are a categorical generalization of injective functions (also called "onetoone functions"); in some categories the notions coincide, but monomorphisms are more general, as in the examples below. The categorical dual of a monomorphism is an epimorphism, that is, a monomorphism in a category ''C'' is an epimorphism in the dual category ''C''op. Every section is a monomorphism, and every retraction is an epimorphism. Relation to invertibility Leftinvertible morphisms are necessarily monic: if ''l'' is a left inverse for ''f'' (meanin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homomorphism
In algebra, a homomorphism is a structurepreserving map between two algebraic structures of the same type (such as two groups, two rings, or two vector spaces). The word ''homomorphism'' comes from the Ancient Greek language: () meaning "same" and () meaning "form" or "shape". However, the word was apparently introduced to mathematics due to a (mis)translation of German meaning "similar" to meaning "same". The term "homomorphism" appeared as early as 1892, when it was attributed to the German mathematician Felix Klein (1849–1925). Homomorphisms of vector spaces are also called linear maps, and their study is the subject of linear algebra. The concept of homomorphism has been generalized, under the name of morphism, to many other structures that either do not have an underlying set, or are not algebraic. This generalization is the starting point of category theory. A homomorphism may also be an isomorphism, an endomorphism, an automorphism, etc. (see below). Each of those ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Epic Morphism
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is rightcancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Morphism
In mathematics, particularly in category theory, a morphism is a structurepreserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics. In set theory, morphisms are functions; in linear algebra, linear transformations; in group theory, group homomorphisms; in topology, continuous functions, and so on. In category theory, ''morphism'' is a broadly similar idea: the mathematical objects involved need not be sets, and the relationships between them may be something other than maps, although the morphisms between the objects of a given category have to behave similarly to maps in that they have to admit an associative operation similar to function composition. A morphism in category theory is an abstraction of a homomorphism. The study of morphisms and of the structures (called "objects") over which they are defined is central to category theory. Much of the terminology of morphisms, as well as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Epimorphism
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is rightcancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Category
In mathematics, an abelian category is a category in which morphisms and objects can be added and in which kernels and cokernels exist and have desirable properties. The motivating prototypical example of an abelian category is the category of abelian groups, Ab. The theory originated in an effort to unify several cohomology theories by Alexander Grothendieck and independently in the slightly earlier work of David Buchsbaum. Abelian categories are very ''stable'' categories; for example they are regular and they satisfy the snake lemma. The class of abelian categories is closed under several categorical constructions, for example, the category of chain complexes of an abelian category, or the category of functors from a small category to an abelian category are abelian as well. These stability properties make them inevitable in homological algebra and beyond; the theory has major applications in algebraic geometry, cohomology and pure category theory. Abelian categories are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Section (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a section is a right inverse of some morphism. Dually, a retraction is a left inverse of some morphism. In other words, if f: X\to Y and g: Y\to X are morphisms whose composition f \circ g: Y\to Y is the identity morphism on Y, then g is a section of f, and f is a retraction of g. Every section is a monomorphism (every morphism with a left inverse is leftcancellative), and every retraction is an epimorphism (every morphism with a right inverse is rightcancellative). In algebra, sections are also called split monomorphisms and retractions are also called split epimorphisms. In an abelian category, if f: X\to Y is a split epimorphism with split monomorphism g: Y\to X, then X is isomorphic to the direct sum of Y and the kernel of f. The synonym coretraction for section is sometimes seen in the literature, although rarely in recent work. Properties * A section that is also an epimorphism is an isomorphism. Dually a retraction that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Retract (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a section is a right inverse of some morphism. Dually, a retraction is a left inverse of some morphism. In other words, if f: X\to Y and g: Y\to X are morphisms whose composition f \circ g: Y\to Y is the identity morphism on Y, then g is a section of f, and f is a retraction of g. Every section is a monomorphism (every morphism with a left inverse is leftcancellative), and every retraction is an epimorphism (every morphism with a right inverse is rightcancellative). In algebra, sections are also called split monomorphisms and retractions are also called split epimorphisms. In an abelian category, if f: X\to Y is a split epimorphism with split monomorphism g: Y\to X, then X is isomorphic to the direct sum of Y and the kernel of f. The synonym coretraction for section is sometimes seen in the literature, although rarely in recent work. Properties * A section that is also an epimorphism is an isomorphism. Dually a retraction that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Section (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a section is a right inverse of some morphism. Dually, a retraction is a left inverse of some morphism. In other words, if f: X\to Y and g: Y\to X are morphisms whose composition f \circ g: Y\to Y is the identity morphism on Y, then g is a section of f, and f is a retraction of g. Every section is a monomorphism (every morphism with a left inverse is leftcancellative), and every retraction is an epimorphism (every morphism with a right inverse is rightcancellative). In algebra, sections are also called split monomorphisms and retractions are also called split epimorphisms. In an abelian category, if f: X\to Y is a split epimorphism with split monomorphism g: Y\to X, then X is isomorphic to the direct sum of Y and the kernel of f. The synonym coretraction for section is sometimes seen in the literature, although rarely in recent work. Properties * A section that is also an epimorphism is an isomorphism. Dually a retraction that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective Function
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Categorical Dual
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, duality is a correspondence between the properties of a category ''C'' and the dual properties of the opposite category ''C''op. Given a statement regarding the category ''C'', by interchanging the source and target of each morphism as well as interchanging the order of composing two morphisms, a corresponding dual statement is obtained regarding the opposite category ''C''op. Duality, as such, is the assertion that truth is invariant under this operation on statements. In other words, if a statement is true about ''C'', then its dual statement is true about ''C''op. Also, if a statement is false about ''C'', then its dual has to be false about ''C''op. Given a concrete category ''C'', it is often the case that the opposite category ''C''op per se is abstract. ''C''op need not be a category that arises from mathematical practice. In this case, another category ''D'' is also termed to be in duality with ''C'' if ''D'' and ''C''op are e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Homomorphism
In mathematics, given two groups, (''G'', ∗) and (''H'', ·), a group homomorphism from (''G'', ∗) to (''H'', ·) is a function ''h'' : ''G'' → ''H'' such that for all ''u'' and ''v'' in ''G'' it holds that : h(u*v) = h(u) \cdot h(v) where the group operation on the left side of the equation is that of ''G'' and on the right side that of ''H''. From this property, one can deduce that ''h'' maps the identity element ''eG'' of ''G'' to the identity element ''eH'' of ''H'', : h(e_G) = e_H and it also maps inverses to inverses in the sense that : h\left(u^\right) = h(u)^. \, Hence one can say that ''h'' "is compatible with the group structure". Older notations for the homomorphism ''h''(''x'') may be ''x''''h'' or ''x''''h'', though this may be confused as an index or a general subscript. In automata theory, sometimes homomorphisms are written to the right of their arguments without parentheses, so that ''h''(''x'') becomes simply xh. In areas of mathematics where on ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 