Modulus Of Continuity
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Modulus Of Continuity
In mathematical analysis, a modulus of continuity is a function ω : , ∞→ , ∞used to measure quantitatively the uniform continuity of functions. So, a function ''f'' : ''I'' → R admits ω as a modulus of continuity if and only if :, f(x)-f(y), \leq\omega(, x-y, ), for all ''x'' and ''y'' in the domain of ''f''. Since moduli of continuity are required to be infinitesimal at 0, a function turns out to be uniformly continuous if and only if it admits a modulus of continuity. Moreover, relevance to the notion is given by the fact that sets of functions sharing the same modulus of continuity are exactly equicontinuous families. For instance, the modulus ω(''t'') := ''kt'' describes the k- Lipschitz functions, the moduli ω(''t'') := ''kt''α describe the Hölder continuity, the modulus ω(''t'') := ''kt''(, log ''t'', +1) describes the almost Lipschitz class, and so on. In general, the role of ω is to fix some explicit functional dependence of ε on δ in the (ε, δ) definit ...
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Mathematical Analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limits, and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite sequences, series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were implicitly present in the early days of ancient Greek mathematics. For instance, an infinite geometric sum is implicit in Zeno's paradox of the dichot ...
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Uniform Convergence
In the mathematical field of analysis, uniform convergence is a mode of convergence of functions stronger than pointwise convergence. A sequence of functions (f_n) converges uniformly to a limiting function f on a set E if, given any arbitrarily small positive number \epsilon, a number N can be found such that each of the functions f_N, f_,f_,\ldots differs from f by no more than \epsilon ''at every point'' x ''in'' E. Described in an informal way, if f_n converges to f uniformly, then the rate at which f_n(x) approaches f(x) is "uniform" throughout its domain in the following sense: in order to guarantee that f_n(x) falls within a certain distance \epsilon of f(x), we do not need to know the value of x\in E in question — there can be found a single value of N=N(\epsilon) ''independent of x'', such that choosing n\geq N will ensure that f_n(x) is within \epsilon of f(x) ''for all x\in E''. In contrast, pointwise convergence of f_n to f merely guarantees that for any x\in E giv ...
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Approximation Theory
In mathematics, approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby. Note that what is meant by ''best'' and ''simpler'' will depend on the application. A closely related topic is the approximation of functions by generalized Fourier series, that is, approximations based upon summation of a series of terms based upon orthogonal polynomials. One problem of particular interest is that of approximating a function in a computer mathematical library, using operations that can be performed on the computer or calculator (e.g. addition and multiplication), such that the result is as close to the actual function as possible. This is typically done with polynomial or rational (ratio of polynomials) approximations. The objective is to make the approximation as close as possible to the actual function, typically with an accuracy close to that of the underlying compute ...
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Lipschitz Maps
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixed-point theorem. We have the following chain of strict inclu ...
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Modulus Of Convergence
In real analysis, a branch of mathematics, a modulus of convergence is a function that tells how quickly a convergent sequence converges. These moduli are often employed in the study of computable analysis and constructive mathematics. If a sequence of real numbers x_i converges to a real number x, then by definition, for every real \varepsilon > 0 there is a natural number N such that if i > N then \left, x - x_i\ f(n) then \left, x - x_i\ g(n) then \left, x_i - x_j\ < 1/n. The latter definition is often employed in constructive settings, where the limit $x$ may actually be identified with the convergent sequence. Some authors use an alternate definition that replaces $1/n$ with $2^\left\{-n\right\}$.

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Constructive Analysis
In mathematics, constructive analysis is mathematical analysis done according to some principles of constructive mathematics. This contrasts with ''classical analysis'', which (in this context) simply means analysis done according to the (more common) principles of classical mathematics. Generally speaking, constructive analysis can reproduce theorems of classical analysis, but only in application to separable spaces; also, some theorems may need to be approached by approximations. Furthermore, many classical theorems can be stated in ways that are logically equivalent according to classical logic, but not all of these forms will be valid in constructive analysis, which uses intuitionistic logic. Examples The intermediate value theorem For a simple example, consider the intermediate value theorem (IVT). In classical analysis, IVT implies that, given any continuous function ''f'' from a closed interval 'a'',''b''to the real line ''R'', if ''f''(''a'') is negative while ''f''(''b' ...
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Finite Difference
A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form . If a finite difference is divided by , one gets a difference quotient. The approximation of derivatives by finite differences plays a central role in finite difference methods for the numerical solution of differential equations, especially boundary value problems. The difference operator, commonly denoted \Delta is the operator that maps a function to the function \Delta /math> defined by :\Delta x)= f(x+1)-f(x). A difference equation is a functional equation that involves the finite difference operator in the same way as a differential equation involves derivatives. There are many similarities between difference equations and differential equations, specially in the solving methods. Certain recurrence relations can be written as difference equations by replacing iteration notation with finite differences. In numerical analysis, finite differences are widely used for approximating derivatives, and the term "fi ...
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Translation (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure, shape or space by the same distance in a given direction. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry. As a function If \mathbf is a fixed vector, known as the ''translation vector'', and \mathbf is the initial position of some object, then the translation function T_ will work as T_(\mathbf)=\mathbf+\mathbf. If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T . The translate of A by T_ is often written A+\mathbf . Horizontal and vertical translations In geometry, a vertical translation (also known as vertical shift) is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system. Often, vertical translations a ...
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Lebesgue
Henri Léon Lebesgue (; June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician known for his theory of integration, which was a generalization of the 17th-century concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis. His theory was published originally in his dissertation ''Intégrale, longueur, aire'' ("Integral, length, area") at the University of Nancy during 1902. Personal life Henri Lebesgue was born on 28 June 1875 in Beauvais, Oise. Lebesgue's father was a typesetter and his mother was a school teacher. His parents assembled at home a library that the young Henri was able to use. His father died of tuberculosis when Lebesgue was still very young and his mother had to support him by herself. As he showed a remarkable talent for mathematics in primary school, one of his instructors arranged for community support to continue his education at the Collège de Beauvais and then at Lycée Saint-Louis and Lycée Louis ...
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Dini Test
In mathematics, the Dini and Dini–Lipschitz tests are highly precise tests that can be used to prove that the Fourier series of a function converges at a given point. These tests are named after Ulisse Dini and Rudolf Lipschitz. Definition Let be a function on ,2 let be some point and let be a positive number. We define the local modulus of continuity at the point by :\left.\right.\omega_f(\delta;t)=\max_ , f(t)-f(t+\varepsilon), Notice that we consider here to be a periodic function, e.g. if and is negative then we define . The global modulus of continuity (or simply the modulus of continuity) is defined by :\omega_f(\delta) = \max_t \omega_f(\delta;t) With these definitions we may state the main results: :Theorem (Dini's test): Assume a function satisfies at a point that ::\int_0^\pi \frac\omega_f(\delta;t)\,\mathrm\delta < \infty. :Then the Fourier series of converges at to . For example, the theorem holds with but does not hold with . :Theorem ...