Module Homomorphism
In algebra, a module homomorphism is a function between modules that preserves the module structures. Explicitly, if ''M'' and ''N'' are left modules over a ring ''R'', then a function f: M \to N is called an ''R''''module homomorphism'' or an ''R''''linear map'' if for any ''x'', ''y'' in ''M'' and ''r'' in ''R'', :f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y), :f(rx) = rf(x). In other words, ''f'' is a group homomorphism (for the underlying additive groups) that commutes with scalar multiplication. If ''M'', ''N'' are right ''R''modules, then the second condition is replaced with :f(xr) = f(x)r. The preimage of the zero element under ''f'' is called the kernel of ''f''. The set of all module homomorphisms from ''M'' to ''N'' is denoted by \operatorname_R(M, N). It is an abelian group (under pointwise addition) but is not necessarily a module unless ''R'' is commutative. The composition of module homomorphisms is again a module homomorphism, and the identity map on a module is a module homomorphism. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra meant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Of Units
In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root of unit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Annihilator (ring Theory)
In mathematics, the annihilator of a subset of a module over a ring is the ideal formed by the elements of the ring that give always zero when multiplied by an element of . Over an integral domain, a module that has a nonzero annihilator is a torsion module, and a finitely generated torsion module has a nonzero annihilator. The above definition applies also in the case noncommutative rings, where the left annihilator of a left module is a left ideal, and the rightannihilator, of a right module is a right ideal. Definitions Let ''R'' be a ring, and let ''M'' be a left ''R''module. Choose a nonempty subset ''S'' of ''M''. The annihilator of ''S'', denoted Ann''R''(''S''), is the set of all elements ''r'' in ''R'' such that, for all ''s'' in ''S'', . In set notation, :\mathrm_R(S)=\ It is the set of all elements of ''R'' that "annihilate" ''S'' (the elements for which ''S'' is a torsion set). Subsets of right modules may be used as well, after the modification of "" in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal (ring Theory)
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, an ideal of a ring is a special subset of its elements. Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers, such as the even numbers or the multiples of 3. Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness, and multiplying an even number by any integer (even or odd) results in an even number; these closure and absorption properties are the defining properties of an ideal. An ideal can be used to construct a quotient ring in a way similar to how, in group theory, a normal subgroup can be used to construct a quotient group. Among the integers, the ideals correspond oneforone with the nonnegative integers: in this ring, every ideal is a principal ideal consisting of the multiples of a single nonnegative number. However, in other rings, the ideals may not correspond directly to the ring elements, and certain properties of integers, when generalized to rings, attach more naturally to the ideals than to the elements of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called '' scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Transformation
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation, vector space homomorphism, or in some contexts linear function) is a mapping V \to W between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication. The same names and the same definition are also used for the more general case of modules over a ring; see Module homomorphism. If a linear map is a bijection then it is called a . In the case where V = W, a linear map is called a (linear) ''endomorphism''. Sometimes the term refers to this case, but the term "linear operator" can have different meanings for different conventions: for example, it can be used to emphasize that V and W are real vector spaces (not necessarily with V = W), or it can be used to emphasize that V is a function space, which is a common convention in functional analysis. Sometimes the term ''linear function'' has the same meaning as ''linear map ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Map
0 (zero) is a number representing an empty quantity. In placevalue notation such as the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, 0 also serves as a placeholder numerical digit, which works by multiplying digits to the left of 0 by the radix, usually by 10. As a number, 0 fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and other algebraic structures. Common names for the number 0 in English are ''zero'', ''nought'', ''naught'' (), ''nil''. In contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter O, the number is sometimes pronounced as ''oh'' or ''o'' (). Informal or slang terms for 0 include ''zilch'' and ''zip''. Historically, ''ought'', ''aught'' (), and ''cipher'', have also been used. Etymology The word ''zero'' came into the English language via French from the Italian , a contraction of the Venetian form of Italian via ''ṣafira'' or ''ṣifr''. In preIslamic time the word (Arabic ) had the meaning ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Epimorphism
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' that is rightcancellative in the sense that, for all objects ''Z'' and all morphisms , : g_1 \circ f = g_2 \circ f \implies g_1 = g_2. Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of onto or surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds exactly to the surjective functions), but they may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring epimorphism. The dual of an epimorphism is a monomorphism (i.e. an epimorphism in a category ''C'' is a monomorphism in the dual category ''C''op). Many authors in abstract algebra and universal algebra define an epimorphism simply as an ''onto'' or surjective homomorphism. Every epimorphism in this algebraic sense is an epimorphism in the sense of category theory, but the converse is not true in all categories. In this article, the term "epimorphism" w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monomorphism
In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. A monomorphism from to is often denoted with the notation X\hookrightarrow Y. In the more general setting of category theory, a monomorphism (also called a monic morphism or a mono) is a leftcancellative morphism. That is, an arrow such that for all objects and all morphisms , : f \circ g_1 = f \circ g_2 \implies g_1 = g_2. Monomorphisms are a categorical generalization of injective functions (also called "onetoone functions"); in some categories the notions coincide, but monomorphisms are more general, as in the examples below. The categorical dual of a monomorphism is an epimorphism, that is, a monomorphism in a category ''C'' is an epimorphism in the dual category ''C''op. Every section is a monomorphism, and every retraction is an epimorphism. Relation to invertibility Leftinvertible morphisms are necessarily monic: if ''l'' is a left inverse for ''f'' (meaning ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism compos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division Ring
In algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a nontrivial ring in which division by nonzero elements is defined. Specifically, it is a nontrivial ring in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, that is, an element usually denoted , such that . So, (right) ''division'' may be defined as , but this notation is avoided, as one may have . A commutative division ring is a field. Wedderburn's little theorem asserts that all finite division rings are commutative and therefore finite fields. Historically, division rings were sometimes referred to as fields, while fields were called "commutative fields". In some languages, such as French, the word equivalent to "field" ("corps") is used for both commutative and noncommutative cases, and the distinction between the two cases is made by adding qualificatives such as "corps commutatif" (commutative field) or "corps gauche" (skew field). All division rings are simple. That is, they have no twosided ideal besi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Submodule
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the module conce ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 