HOME TheInfoList
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff


picture info

Lumen (anatomy)
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine. It comes . It can refer to: *The interior of a vessel, such as the central space in an artery, vein or capillary through which blood flows. *The interior of the gastrointestinal tract *The pathways of the bronchi in the lungs *The interior of renal tubules and urinary collecting ducts *The pathways of the female genital tract, starting with a single pathway of the vagina, splitting up in two lumina in the uterus, both of which continue through the fallopian tubes In cell biology, a lumen is a membrane-defined space that is found inside several organelles, cellular components, or structures: *thylakoid, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondrion, or microtubule Transluminal procedures ''Transluminal procedures'' are procedures occurring through lumina, including: *Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in the lumina of, for example, the stom ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Gut Wall
The gastrointestinal wall of the gastrointestinal tract is made up of four layers of specialised tissue. From the inner cavity of the gut (the lumen) outwards, these are: *Mucosa *Submucosa *Muscular layer *Serosa or adventitia The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It surrounds the lumen of the tract, and comes into direct contact with digested food (chyme). The mucosa itself is made up of three layers: the epithelium, where most digestive, absorptive and secretory processes occur; the lamina propria, a layer of connective tissue, and the muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle. The submucosa contains nerves including the submucous plexus (also called Meissner's plexus), blood vessels and elastic fibres with collagen, that stretches with increased capacity but maintains the shape of the intestine. The muscular layer surrounds the submucosa. It comprises layers of smooth muscle in longitudinal and circular orientation that also helps with contin ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Cellular Component
300px| A iological_machine.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="ribosome_is_a_[[biological_machine">ribosome_is_a_[[biological_machine_that_utilizes_[[protein_dynamics_on_[[Nanoscopic_scale.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="protein_dynamics.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="iological_machine.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="ribosome is a ribosome_is_a_[[biological_machine_that_utilizes_[[protein_dynamics">iological_machine.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="ribosome_is_a_[[biological_machine">ribosome_is_a_[[biological_machine_that_utilizes_[[protein_dynamics_on_[[Nanoscopic_scale">nanoscales_to_[[translation_(biology).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="biological machine">ribosome is a [[biological machine that utilizes [[protein dynamics">iological_machine.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" tit ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Angioplasty
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. A deflated balloon attached to a catheter (a balloon catheter) is passed over a guide-wire into the narrowed vessel and then inflated to a fixed size. The balloon forces expansion of the blood vessel and the surrounding muscular wall, allowing an improved blood flow. A stent may be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. Angioplasty has come to include all manner of vascular interventions that are typically performed percutaneously. The word is composed of the combining forms of the Greek words ἀγγεῖον ' "vessel" or "cavity" (of the human body) and πλάσσω ' "form" or "mould". Uses and indications Coronary angioplasty A coronary angioplasty is ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Interventional Radiology
Interventional radiology (IR) is a medical subspecialty that performs various minimally-invasive procedures using medical imaging guidance, such as x-ray fluoroscopy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. IR performs both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures through very small incisions or body orifices. Diagnostic IR procedures are those intended to help make a diagnosis or guide further medical treatment, and include image-guided biopsy of a tumor or injection of an imaging contrast agent into a hollow structure, such as a blood vessel or a duct. By contrast, therapeutic IR procedures provide direct treatment—they include catheter-based medicine delivery, medical device placement (e.g., stents), and angioplasty of narrowed structures. The main benefits of interventional radiology techniques are that they can reach the deep structures of the body through a body orifice or tiny incision using small needles and wires. That decreases risks, pain, and reco ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body. These vessels transport blood cells, nutrients, and oxygen to the tissues of the body. They also take waste and carbon dioxide away from the tissues. Blood vessels are needed to sustain life, because all of the body's tissues rely on their functionality. There are five types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the arterioles; the capillaries, where the exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues occurs; the venules; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back towards the heart. The word ''vascular'', meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin ''vas'', meaning vessel. Some structures – such as cartilage, the epithelium, and the lens and cornea of the eye – do not contain blood vessels and are labeled ''avascular''. Structure The arteries and veins have three layers. Th ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Colon (anatomy)
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation. The colon is the largest portion of the large intestine, so many mentions of the large intestine and colon overlap in meaning whenever precision is not the focus. Most sources define the large intestine as the combination of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Some other sources exclude the anal canal. In humans, the large intestine begins in the right iliac region of the pelvis, just at or below the waist, where it is joined to the end of the small intestine at the cecum, via the ileocecal valve. It then continues as the colon ascending the abdomen, across the width of the abdominal cavity as the transverse colon, and then descending to the rectum and its endpoint at the anal canal. Overall, in humans, the large intestine i ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Bladder
The urinary bladder, or simply bladder, is a hollow muscular organ in humans and other vertebrates that stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination. In the human the bladder is a hollow distensible organ that sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. The typical human bladder will hold between 300 and (10.14 and ) before the urge to empty occurs, but can hold considerably more. The Latin phrase for "urinary bladder" is ''vesica urinaria'', and the term ''vesical'' or prefix ''vesico -'' appear in connection with associated structures such as vesical veins. The modern Latin word for "bladder" – ''cystis'' – appears in associated terms such as cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). Structure In humans, the bladder is a hollow muscular organ situated at the base of the pelvis. In gross anatomy, the bladder can be divided into a broad , a body, an apex, and a neck. The apex is directed forward toward the up ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following chewing. It performs a chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and hydrochloric acid. In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion. The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines. Structure In humans, the stomach lies between the oesophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an experimental surgical technique whereby "scarless" abdominal operations can be performed with an endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, urethra, anus, vagina, etc.) then through an internal incision in the stomach, vagina, bladder or colon, thus avoiding any external incisions or scars. See also * Single port laparoscopy References * {{cite journal | pmid = 17651552 | volume=11 | title=Minilaparoscopy-assisted natural orifice surgery | pmc=3015810 | year=2007 | journal=JSLS | pages=24–9 | last1 = Tsin | first1 = DA | last2 = Colombero | first2 = LT | last3 = Lambeck | first3 = J | last4 = Manolas | first4 = P Category:Digestive system surgery ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Microtubule
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells. Microtubules can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of a microtubule is between 23 and 27 nm while the inner diameter is between 11 and 15 nm. They are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin into protofilaments that can then associate laterally to form a hollow tube, the microtubule. The most common form of a microtubule consists of 13 protofilaments in the tubular arrangement. Microtubules are very important in a number of cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton. They also make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella. They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, i ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Mitochondrion
A mitochondrion (, plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms lack mitochondria (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. One eukaryote, ''Monocercomonoides'', is known to have completely lost its mitochondria, and one multicellular organism, ''Henneguya salminicola'', is known to have retained mitochondrion-related organelles in association with a complete loss of their mitochondrial genome. Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. A mitochondrion is thus termed the ''powerhouse'' of the cell. Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm² in area but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visib ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Lysosome
A lysosome () is a membrane-bound organelle found in many animal cells. They are spherical vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down many kinds of biomolecules. A lysosome has a specific composition, of both its membrane proteins, and its lumenal proteins. The lumen's pH (~4.5–5.0) is optimal for the enzymes involved in hydrolysis, analogous to the activity of the stomach. Besides degradation of polymers, the lysosome is involved in various cell processes, including secretion, plasma membrane repair, apoptosis, cell signaling, and energy metabolism. Lysosomes act as the waste disposal system of the cell by digesting in used materials in the cytoplasm, from both inside and outside the cell. Material from outside the cell is taken up through endocytosis, while material from the inside of the cell is digested through autophagy. The sizes of the organelles vary greatly—the larger ones can be more than 10 times the size of the smaller ones. They were discovere ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding. It is a type of organelle made up of two subunits – rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The endoplasmic reticulum is found in most eukaryotic cells and forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs known as cisternae (in the RER), and tubular structures in the SER. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum is not found in red blood cells, or spermatozoa. The two types of ER share many of the same proteins and engage in certain common activities such as the synthesis of certain lipids and cholesterol. Different types of cells contain different ratios of the two types of ER depending on the activities of the cell. The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Thylakoid
Thylakoids are membrane-bound compartments inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Thylakoids consist of a thylakoid membrane surrounding a thylakoid lumen. Chloroplast thylakoids frequently form stacks of disks referred to as grana (singular: granum). Grana are connected by intergranal/stromal thylakoids, which join granum stacks together as a single functional compartment. In thylakoid membranes, chlorophyll pigments are found in packets called quantasomes. Each quantasome contains 230 to 250 chlorophyll molecules. Etymology The word ''Thylakoid'' comes from the Greek word ''thylakos'' meaning "sac" or "pouch". Thus, ''thylakoid'' means "sac-like" or "pouch-like". Structure [[File:Thylakoid Structure.jpg|720px|Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large paral ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]