Lifttodrag Ratio
In aerodynamics, the lifttodrag ratio (or L/D ratio) is the lift generated by an aerodynamic body such as an aerofoil or aircraft, divided by the aerodynamic drag caused by moving through air. It describes the aerodynamic efficiency under given flight conditions. The L/D ratio for any given body will vary according to these flight conditions. For an aerofoil wing or powered aircraft, the L/D is specified when in straight and level flight. For a glider it determines the glide ratio, of distance travelled against loss of height. The term is calculated for any particular airspeed by measuring the lift generated, then dividing by the drag at that speed. These vary with speed, so the results are typically plotted on a 2dimensional graph. In almost all cases the graph forms a Ushape, due to the two main components of drag. The L/D may be calculated using computational fluid dynamics or computer simulation. It is measured empirically by testing in a wind tunnel or in free flight te ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Airfoil Lift And Drag
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the crosssectional shape of an object whose motion through a gas is capable of generating significant lift, such as a wing, a sail, or the blades of propeller, rotor, or turbine. A solid body moving through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the relative freestream velocity is called lift. The component parallel to the relative freestream velocity is called drag. An airfoil is a streamlined shape that is capable of generating significantly more lift than drag. Airfoils can be designed for use at different speeds by modifying their geometry: those for subsonic flight generally have a rounded leading edge, while those designed for supersonic flight tend to be slimmer with a sharp leading edge. All have a sharp trailing edge. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils. The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polar Curve 2
Polar may refer to: Geography Polar may refer to: * Geographical pole, either of two fixed points on the surface of a rotating body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body rotates *Polar climate, the climate common in polar regions * Polar regions of Earth, locations within the polar circles, referred to as the Arctic and Antarctic Places *Polar, Wisconsin, town in Langlade County, Wisconsin, United States **Polar (community), Wisconsin, unincorporated community in Langlade County, Wisconsin, United States People * Polar (musician), Norwegian electronic music producer Arts, entertainment and media Music Labels and studios * Polar Music, a record label * Polar Studios, music studio of ABBA in Sweden Albums * ''Polar'' (album), second album by the High Water Marks * ''Polars'' (album), an album by the Dutch metal band, Textures Other uses in arts, entertainment and media * ''Polar'' (webcomic), a webcomic and series of graphic novel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aeronautical Engineering
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: Aeronautics, aeronautical engineering and Astronautics, astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering is similar, but deals with the electronic engineering, electronics side of aerospace engineering. "Aeronautical engineering" was the original term for the field. As flight technology advanced to include vehicles operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has come into use. Aerospace engineering, particularly the astronautics branch, is often colloquially referred to as "rocket science". Overview Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components. Consequently, they are usually the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cruising Speed
Cruise is the phase of aircraft flight that starts when the aircraft levels off after a climb, until it begins to descend for landing. Cruising usually consumes the majority of a flight, and it may include changes in heading (direction of flight), airspeed and altitude. Commercial or passenger aircraft are usually designed for optimum performance around their cruise speed ( VC) and cruise altitude. Factors affecting optimum cruise speed and altitude include payload, center of gravity, air temperature, and humidity. Cruise altitude is usually where the higher ground speed is balanced against the decrease in engine thrust and efficiency at higher altitudes. A typical cruising airspeed for a longdistance commercial passenger aircraft is approximately . The typical cruising altitude for commercial airliners is . The speed which covers the greatest distance for a given amount of fuel is known as the maximum range speed. This is the speed at which drag is minimised. For jet aircraft ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Drag Curve
The drag curve or drag polar is the relationship between the drag on an aircraft and other variables, such as lift, the coefficient of lift, angleofattack or speed. It may be described by an equation or displayed as a graph (sometimes called a "polar plot"). Drag may be expressed as actual drag or the coefficient of drag. Drag curves are closely related to other curves which do not show drag, such as the power required/speed curve, or the sink rate/speed curve. The drag curve The significant aerodynamic properties of aircraft wings are summarised by two dimensionless quantities, the lift and drag coefficients and . Like other such aerodynamic quantities, they are functions only of the angle of attack , the Reynolds number and the Mach number . and can be plotted against , or can be plotted against each other. The lift and the drag forces, and , are scaled by the same factor to get and , so = . and are at right angles, with parallel to the free stream velocit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Drag Coefficient
In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: c_\mathrm, c_x or c_) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation in which a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area. The drag coefficient of any object comprises the effects of the two basic contributors to fluid dynamic drag: skin friction and form drag. The drag coefficient of a lifting airfoil or hydrofoil also includes the effects of liftinduced drag. The drag coefficient of a complete structure such as an aircraft also includes the effects of interference drag. Definition The drag coefficient c_\mathrm d is defined as c_\mathrm d = \dfrac where: * F_\mathrm d is the drag force, which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity; * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lift Coefficient
In fluid dynamics, the lift coefficient () is a dimensionless quantity that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area. A lifting body is a foil or a complete foilbearing body such as a fixedwing aircraft. is a function of the angle of the body to the flow, its Reynolds number and its Mach number. The section lift coefficient refers to the dynamic lift characteristics of a twodimensional foil section, with the reference area replaced by the foil chord. Abbott, Ira H., and Doenhoff, Albert E. von: ''Theory of Wing Sections''. Section 1.2 Definitions The lift coefficient ''C''L is defined by :C_\mathrm L \equiv \frac = = , where L\, is the lift force, S\, is the relevant surface area and q\, is the fluid dynamic pressure, in turn linked to the fluid density \rho\,, and to the flow speed u\,. The choice of the reference surface should be specified since it is arbitrary. For examp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Drag (aerodynamics)
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or between a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, the drag force depends on velocity. Drag force is proportional to the velocity for lowspeed flow and the squared velocity for high speed flow, where the distinction between low and high speed is measured by the Reynolds number. Even though the ultimate cause of drag is viscous friction, turbulent drag is independent of viscosity. Drag forces always tend to decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path. Examples Examples of drag include the component of the net aerodynamic or hydrodynamic force acting opposite to the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Drag Equation
In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid. The equation is: F_\, =\, \tfrac12\, \rho\, u^2\, c_\, A where *F_ is the drag force, which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity, *\rho is the mass density of the fluid, *u is the flow velocity relative to the object, *A is the reference area, and *c_ is the drag coefficient – a dimensionless coefficient related to the object's geometry and taking into account both skin friction and form drag. If the fluid is a liquid, c_ depends on the Reynolds number; if the fluid is a gas, c_ depends on both the Reynolds number and the Mach number. The equation is attributed to Lord Rayleigh, who originally used ''L''2 in place of ''A'' (with ''L'' being some linear dimension). The reference area ''A'' is typically defined as the area of the orthographic projection of the object on a plane perpe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Profile Drag
Parasitic drag, also known as profile drag, is a type of aerodynamic drag that acts on any object when the object is moving through a fluid. Parasitic drag is a combination of form drag and skin friction drag. It affects all objects regardless of whether they are capable of generating lift. Total drag on an aircraft is made up of parasitic drag and liftinduced drag. Parasitic drag comprises all types of drag except liftinduced drag. Form drag Form drag arises because of the shape of the object. The general size and shape of the body are the most important factors in form drag; bodies with a larger presented crosssection will have a higher drag than thinner bodies; sleek ("streamlined") objects have lower form drag. Form drag follows the drag equation, meaning that it increases with the square of the velocity, and thus becomes more important for highspeed aircraft. Form drag depends on the longitudinal section of the body. A prudent choice of body profile is essential for a lo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Air Resistance
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or between a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, the drag force depends on velocity. Drag force is proportional to the velocity for lowspeed flow and the squared velocity for high speed flow, where the distinction between low and high speed is measured by the Reynolds number. Even though the ultimate cause of drag is viscous friction, turbulent drag is independent of viscosity. Drag forces always tend to decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path. Examples Examples of drag include the component of the net aerodynamic or hydrodynamic force acting opposite to the dire ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Form Drag
Parasitic drag, also known as profile drag, is a type of aerodynamic drag that acts on any object when the object is moving through a fluid. Parasitic drag is a combination of form drag and skin friction drag. It affects all objects regardless of whether they are capable of generating lift. Total drag on an aircraft is made up of parasitic drag and liftinduced drag. Parasitic drag comprises all types of drag except liftinduced drag. Form drag Form drag arises because of the shape of the object. The general size and shape of the body are the most important factors in form drag; bodies with a larger presented crosssection will have a higher drag than thinner bodies; sleek ("streamlined") objects have lower form drag. Form drag follows the drag equation, meaning that it increases with the square of the velocity, and thus becomes more important for highspeed aircraft. Form drag depends on the longitudinal section of the body. A prudent choice of body profile is essential for a lo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 