Inverse Problem
An inverse problem in science is the process of calculating from a set of observations the causal factors that produced them: for example, calculating an image in Xray computed tomography, source reconstruction in acoustics, or calculating the density of the Earth from measurements of its gravity field. It is called an inverse problem because it starts with the effects and then calculates the causes. It is the inverse of a forward problem, which starts with the causes and then calculates the effects. Inverse problems are some of the most important mathematical problems in science and mathematics because they tell us about parameters that we cannot directly observe. They have wide application in system identification, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing, medical imaging, computer vision, geophysics, oceanography, astronomy, remote sensing, natural language processing, machine learning, nondestructive testing, slope stability analysis and man ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geodesy
Geodesy ( ) is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's figure (geometric shape and size), orientation in space, and gravity. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measurements for other planets (known as '' planetary geodesy''). Geodynamical phenomena, including crustal motion, tides and polar motion, can be studied by designing global and national control networks, applying space geodesy and terrestrial geodetic techniques and relying on datums and coordinate systems. The job title is geodesist or geodetic surveyor. History Definition The word geodesy comes from the Ancient Greek word ''geodaisia'' (literally, "division of Earth"). It is primarily concerned with positioning within the temporally varying gravitational field. Geodesy in the Germanspeaking world is divided into "higher geodesy" ( or ), which is concerned with measuring Earth on the global scale, and "practical geodes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Astronomy
Astronomy () is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and chronology of the Universe, evolution. Objects of interest include planets, natural satellite, moons, stars, nebulae, galaxy, galaxies, and comets. Relevant phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, quasars, blazars, pulsars, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, astronomy studies everything that originates beyond atmosphere of Earth, Earth's atmosphere. Cosmology is a branch of astronomy that studies the universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history made methodical observations of the night sky. These include the Babylonian astronomy, Babylonians, Greek astronomy, Greeks, Indian astronomy, Indians, Egyptian astronomy, Egyptians, Chinese astronomy, Chinese, Maya civilization, Maya, and many anc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Soviet Union
The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a oneparty state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad (Russian SFSR), Kiev (Ukrainian SSR), Minsk ( Byelorussian SSR), Tashkent (Uzbek SSR), AlmaAta (Kazakh SSR), and Novosibirsk (Russian SFSR). It was the largest country in the world, covering over and spanning eleven time zones. The country's roots lay in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hearing The Shape Of A Drum
To hear the shape of a drum is to infer information about the shape of the drumhead from the sound it makes, i.e., from the list of overtones, via the use of mathematical theory. "Can One Hear the Shape of a Drum?" is the title of a 1966 article by Mark Kac in the '' American Mathematical Monthly'' which made the question famous, though this particular phrasing originates with Lipman Bers. Similar questions can be traced back all the way to physicist Arthur Schuster in 1882. For his paper, Kac was given the Lester R. Ford Award in 1967 and the Chauvenet Prize in 1968. The frequencies at which a drumhead can vibrate depend on its shape. The Helmholtz equation calculates the frequencies if the shape is known. These frequencies are the eigenvalues of the Laplacian in the space. A central question is whether the shape can be predicted if the frequencies are known; for example, whether a Reuleaux triangle can be recognized in this way. Kac admitted that he did not know whethe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weyl's Law
In mathematics, especially spectral theory, Weyl's law describes the asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of the Laplace–Beltrami operator. This description was discovered in 1911 (in the d=2,3 case) by Hermann Weyl for eigenvalues for the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on functions that vanish at the boundary of a bounded domain \Omega \subset \mathbb^d. In particular, he proved that the number, N(\lambda), of Dirichlet eigenvalues (counting their multiplicities) less than or equal to \lambda satisfies : \lim_ \frac = (2\pi)^ \omega_d \mathrm(\Omega) where \omega_d is a volume of the unit ball in \mathbb^d. In 1912 he provided a new proof based on variational methods. Generalizations The Weyl law has been extended to more general domains and operators. For the Schrödinger operator : H=h^2 \Delta + V(x) it was extended to : N(E,h)\sim (2\pi h)^ \int _ dx d\xi as E tending to +\infty or to a bottom of essential spectrum and/or h\to +0. Here N(E,h) is the number of e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Laplace–Beltrami Operator
In differential geometry, the Laplace–Beltrami operator is a generalization of the Laplace operator to functions defined on submanifolds in Euclidean space and, even more generally, on Riemannian and pseudoRiemannian manifolds. It is named after PierreSimon Laplace and Eugenio Beltrami. For any twicedifferentiable realvalued function ''f'' defined on Euclidean space R''n'', the Laplace operator (also known as the ''Laplacian'') takes ''f'' to the divergence of its gradient vector field, which is the sum of the ''n'' pure second derivatives of ''f'' with respect to each vector of an orthonormal basis for R''n''. Like the Laplacian, the Laplace–Beltrami operator is defined as the divergence of the gradient, and is a linear operator taking functions into functions. The operator can be extended to operate on tensors as the divergence of the covariant derivative. Alternatively, the operator can be generalized to operate on differential forms using the divergence and exterio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hermann Weyl
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (; 9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher. Although much of his working life was spent in Zürich, Switzerland, and then Princeton, New Jersey, he is associated with the University of Göttingen tradition of mathematics, represented by Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. His research has had major significance for theoretical physics as well as purely mathematical disciplines such as number theory. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century, and an important member of the Institute for Advanced Study during its early years. Weyl contributed to an exceptionally wide range of mathematical fields, including works on space, time, matter, philosophy, logic, symmetry and the history of mathematics. He was one of the first to conceive of combining general relativity with the laws of electromagnetism. Freeman Dyson wrote that Weyl alone bore ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uranus
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Its name is a reference to the Greek god of the sky, Uranus (mythology), Uranus (Caelus), who, according to Greek mythology, was the greatgrandfather of Ares (Mars (mythology), Mars), grandfather of Zeus (Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter) and father of Cronus (Saturn (mythology), Saturn). It has the thirdlargest planetary radius and fourthlargest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the other giant planets. As with gas giants, ice giants also lack a well defined "solid surface." Uranus's Atmosphere#Others, atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "volatiles, ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, al ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Neptune
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun and the farthest known planet in the Solar System. It is the fourthlargest planet in the Solar System by diameter, the thirdmostmassive planet, and the densest giant planet. It is 17 times the mass of Earth, and slightly more massive than its neartwin Uranus. Neptune is denser and physically smaller than Uranus because its greater mass causes more gravitational compression of its atmosphere. It is referred to as one of the solar system's two ice giant planets (the other one being Uranus). Being composed primarily of gases and liquids, it has no welldefined "solid surface". The planet orbits the Sun once every 164.8 julian year (astronomy), years at an average distance of . It is named after the Neptune (mythology), Roman god of the sea and has the astronomical symbol , representing Neptune's trident. Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Urbain Le Verrier
Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier FRS (FOR) HFRSE (; 11 March 1811 – 23 September 1877) was a French astronomer and mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. Le Verrier sent the coordinates to Johann Gottfried Galle in Berlin, asking him to verify. Galle found Neptune in the same night he received Le Verrier's letter, within 1° of the predicted position. The discovery of Neptune is widely regarded as a dramatic validation of celestial mechanics, and is one of the most remarkable moments of 19thcentury science. Biography Early years Le Verrier was born at SaintLô, Manche, France, in a modest bourgeois family, his parents being, LouisBaptiste Le Verrier and MarieJeanneJosephinePauline de Baudre. He studied at École Polytechnique. He briefly studied chemistry und ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Couch Adams
John Couch Adams (; 5 June 1819 – 21 January 1892) was a British mathematician and astronomer. He was born in Laneast, near Launceston, Cornwall, and died in Cambridge. His most famous achievement was predicting the existence and position of Neptune, using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. At the same time, but unknown to each other, the same calculations were made by Urbain Le Verrier. Le Verrier would send his coordinates to Berlin Observatory astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle, who confirmed the existence of the planet on 23 September 1846, finding it within 1° of Le Verrier's predicted location. (There was, and to some extent still is, some controversy over the apportionment of credit for the discovery; see Discovery of Neptune.) Adams was Lowndean Professor in the University of Cambridge from 1859 until his death. He won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1866. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nondestructive Testing
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is any of a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), nondestructive inspection (NDI), and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this technology. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. The six most frequently used NDT methods are eddycurrent, magneticparticle, liquid penetrant, radiographic, ultrasonic, and visual testing. NDT is commonly used in forensic engineering, mechanical engineering, petroleum engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, systems engineering, aeronautical engineering, medicine, and art. Innovations in the field of nondestructive testing have had a profound impact on medical im ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 