Indifference Curves
In economics, an indifference curve connects points on a graph representing different quantities of two goods, points between which a consumer is ''indifferent''. That is, any combinations of two products indicated by the curve will provide the consumer with equal levels of utility, and the consumer has no preference for one combination or bundle of goods over a different combination on the same curve. One can also refer to each point on the indifference curve as rendering the same level of utility (satisfaction) for the consumer. In other words, an indifference curve is the locus of various points showing different combinations of two goods providing equal utility to the consumer. Utility is then a device to represent preferences rather than something from which preferences come. The main use of indifference curves is in the representation of potentially observable demand patterns for individual consumers over commodity bundles. There are infinitely many indifference curves: one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maxima And Minima
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the ''local'' or ''relative'' extrema), or on the entire domain (the ''global'' or ''absolute'' extrema). Pierre de Fermat was one of the first mathematicians to propose a general technique, adequality, for finding the maxima and minima of functions. As defined in set theory, the maximum and minimum of a set are the greatest and least elements in the set, respectively. Unbounded infinite sets, such as the set of real numbers, have no minimum or maximum. Definition A realvalued function ''f'' defined on a domain ''X'' has a global (or absolute) maximum point at ''x''∗, if for all ''x'' in ''X''. Similarly, the function has a global (or absolute) minimum point at ''x''∗, if for all ''x'' in ''X''. The value of the function at a m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Expansion Path
In economics, an expansion path (also called a scale lineJain, TR; Khanna OP (2008). ''Economics.'' VK Publications, ) is a path connecting optimal input combinations as the scale of production expands.Hirschey, Mark (2008). ''Managerial economics.'' Cengage Learning, which is often represented as a curve in a graph with quantities of two inputs, typically physical capital and labor, plotted on the axes. A producer seeking to produce a given number of units of a product in the cheapest possible way chooses the point on the expansion path that is also on the isoquant associated with that output level.Prusty, Sadananda (2010). ''Managerial Economics.'' PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., Economists Alfred Stonier and Douglas Hague defined “expansion path” as "that line which reflects the least–cost method of producing different levels of output, when factor prices remain constant."Stonier, Alfred W.; Hague, Douglas C. (1980). ''A textbook of economic theory, 5th edition.'' Longmans ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1949), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books. It has been a division of the Frenchowned Orion Publishing Group since 1991. History George Weidenfeld and Nigel Nicolson founded Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 1949 with a reception at Brown's Hotel, London. Among many other significant books, it published Vladimir Nabokov's ''Lolita'' (1959) and Nicolson's ''Portrait of a Marriage'' (1973), a frank biography of his mother Vita SackvilleWest and father Harold Nicolson. In its early years Weidenfeld also published nonfiction works by Isaiah Berlin, Hugh TrevorRoper, and Rose Macaulay, and novels by Mary McCarthy and Saul Bellow. Later it published titles by world leaders and historians, along with contemporary fiction and glossy illustrated books. Weidenfeld & Nicolson acquired the publisher Arthur Baker Ltd in 1959, and ran it as an imprint into the 1990s. Weidenfeld was one of Orion's first a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Supply And Demand
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a Market (economics), market. It postulates that, Ceteris paribus, holding all else equal, in a perfect competition, competitive market, the unit price for a particular Good (economics), good, or other traded item such as Labour supply, labor or Market liquidity, liquid financial assets, will vary until it settles at a point where the quantity demanded (at the current price) will equal the quantity supplied (at the current price), resulting in an economic equilibrium for price and quantity transacted. The concept of supply and demand forms the theoretical basis of modern economics. In macroeconomics, as well, the AD–AS model, aggregate demandaggregate supply model has been used to depict how the quantity of real GDP, total output and the aggregate price level may be determined in equilibrium. Graphical representations Supply schedule A supply schedule, depicted graphically as a supply cu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Budget Constraint
In economics, a budget constraint represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income. Consumer theory uses the concepts of a budget constraint and a preference map as tools to examine the parameters of consumer choices . Both concepts have a ready graphical representation in the twogood case. The consumer can only purchase as much as their income will allow, hence they are constrained by their budget. The equation of a budget constraint is P_x x+P_y y=m where P_x is the price of good X, and P_y is the price of good Y, and m = income. Soft budget constraint The concept of soft budget constraints is commonly applied to economies in transition. This theory was originally proposed by János Kornai in 1979. It was used to explain the "economic behavior in socialist economies marked by shortage”. In the socialist transition economy there are soft budget constraint on firms because of subsidies, c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Consumer Theory
The theory of consumer choice is the branch of microeconomics that relates preferences to consumption expenditures and to consumer demand curves. It analyzes how consumers maximize the desirability of their consumption as measured by their preferences subject to limitations on their expenditures, by maximizing utility subject to a consumer budget constraint. Factors influencing consumers' evaluation of the utility of goods: income level, cultural factors, product information and physiopsychological factors. Consumption is separated from production, logically, because two different economic agents are involved. In the first case consumption is by the primary individual, individual tastes or preferences determine the amount of pleasure people derive from the goods and services they consume.; in the second case, a producer might make something that he would not consume himself. Therefore, different motivations and abilities are involved. The models that make up consumer theory ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indifference Curves Showing Budget Line
Indifference may refer to: * Apathy, a psychological attitude * A concept of beneficial detachment in Ignatian spirituality * ''Indifference'' (album), 1985 album by the Proletariat, or the title song * "Indifference" (''Law & Order''), 1990 episode of the television series ''Law & Order'' * "Indifference" (''The Walking Dead''), 2013 episode of the television series ''The Walking Dead'' * Indifference curve, in microeconomic theory, a graph describing consumer preferences * Principle of indifference, in probability theory, a rule for assigning epistemic probabilities * A song on the band Pearl Jam's second album Vs. *In Catholicism, indifferentism, the belief which holds that no religion is superior to another See also * * * Difference (other) Difference, The Difference, Differences or Differently may refer to: Music * ''Difference'' (album), by Dreamtale, 2005 * ''Differently'' (album), by Cassie Davis, 2009 ** "Differently" (song), by Cassie Davis, 2009 * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Consumer Theory
The theory of consumer choice is the branch of microeconomics that relates preferences to consumption expenditures and to consumer demand curves. It analyzes how consumers maximize the desirability of their consumption as measured by their preferences subject to limitations on their expenditures, by maximizing utility subject to a consumer budget constraint. Factors influencing consumers' evaluation of the utility of goods: income level, cultural factors, product information and physiopsychological factors. Consumption is separated from production, logically, because two different economic agents are involved. In the first case consumption is by the primary individual, individual tastes or preferences determine the amount of pleasure people derive from the goods and services they consume.; in the second case, a producer might make something that he would not consume himself. Therefore, different motivations and abilities are involved. The models that make up consumer theory ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Composite Good
In economics, a composite good is an abstraction that represents all but one of the goods in the relevant budget.* ''Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics''"Composite good."/ref> Purpose Consumer demand theory shows how the composite may be treated as if it were only a single good as to properties hypothesized about demand. The composite good represents what is given up along consumer's budget constraint to consume more of the first good. Reason for use Budget constraints are designed to show the maximum amount of a good, or combination of goods, that can be purchased by a consumer given a limited budget. In a singlegood world, the cost of a good cannot be related to any other opportunities. Therefore, opportunity costs cannot be calculated. The addition of one new good to a singlegood market allows for opportunity costs to be determined ''only'' in relation to that other good. However, its weakness is that it ignores ''all other possible choices''. Trying to solve t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convex Preferences
In economics, convex preferences are an individual's ordering of various outcomes, typically with regard to the amounts of various goods consumed, with the property that, roughly speaking, "averages are better than the extremes". The concept roughly corresponds to the concept of diminishing marginal utility without requiring utility functions. Notation Comparable to the greaterthanorequalto ordering relation \geq for real numbers, the notation \succeq below can be translated as: 'is at least as good as' (in preference satisfaction). Similarly, \succ can be translated as 'is strictly better than' (in preference satisfaction), and Similarly, \sim can be translated as 'is equivalent to' (in preference satisfaction). Definition Use ''x'', ''y'', and ''z'' to denote three consumption bundles (combinations of various quantities of various goods). Formally, a preference relation \succeq on the consumption set ''X'' is called convex if whenever :x, y, z \in X where y \succeq x a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convex Function
In mathematics, a realvalued function is called convex if the line segment between any two points on the graph of a function, graph of the function lies above the graph between the two points. Equivalently, a function is convex if its epigraph (mathematics), epigraph (the set of points on or above the graph of the function) is a convex set. A twicedifferentiable function of a single variable is convex if and only if its second derivative is nonnegative on its entire domain. Wellknown examples of convex functions of a single variable include the quadratic function x^2 and the exponential function e^x. In simple terms, a convex function refers to a function whose graph is shaped like a cup \cup, while a concave function's graph is shaped like a cap \cap. Convex functions play an important role in many areas of mathematics. They are especially important in the study of optimization problems where they are distinguished by a number of convenient properties. For instance, a st ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 