Inclusion Map
In mathematics, if A is a subset of B, then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the function \iota that sends each element x of A to x, treated as an element of B: \iota : A\rightarrow B, \qquad \iota(x)=x. A "hooked arrow" () is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: \iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (However, some authors use this hooked arrow for any embedding.) This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections. Given any morphism f between objects X and Y, if there is an inclusion map into the domain \iota : A \to X, then one can form the restriction f \, \iota of f. In many instances, one can also construct a canonical inclusion into the codomain R \to Y known as the range of f. Applications of inclusion maps Inclusion maps tend to be homomorphisms of algebraic structures; thus, such inclusion maps are embeddings. More precisel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn A Subset B
Venn is a surname and a given name. It may refer to: Given name * Venn Eyre (died 1777), Archdeacon of Carlisle, Cumbria, England * Venn Pilcher (1879–1961), Anglican bishop, writer, and translator of hymns * Venn Young (1929–1993), New Zealand politician Surname * Albert Venn (1867–1908), American lacrosse player * Anne Venn (1620s–1654), English religious radical and diarist * Blair Venn, Australian actor * Charles Venn (born 1973), British actor * Harry Venn (1844–1908), Australian politician * Henry Venn (Church Missionary Society) the younger (17961873), secretary of the Church Missionary Society, grandson of Henry Venn * Henry Venn (Clapham Sect) the elder (1725–1797), English evangelical minister * Horace Venn (1892–1953), English cricketer * John Venn (1834–1923), British logician and the inventor of Venn diagrams, son of Henry Venn the younger * John Venn (academic) (died 1687), English academic administrator * John Venn (politician) (1586–1650), ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nullary
Arity () is the number of arguments or operands taken by a function, operation or relation in logic, mathematics, and computer science. In mathematics, arity may also be named ''rank'', but this word can have many other meanings in mathematics. In logic and philosophy, it is also called adicity and degree. In linguistics, it is usually named valency. Examples The term "arity" is rarely employed in everyday usage. For example, rather than saying "the arity of the addition operation is 2" or "addition is an operation of arity 2" one usually says "addition is a binary operation". In general, the naming of functions or operators with a given arity follows a convention similar to the one used for ''n''based numeral systems such as binary and hexadecimal. One combines a Latin prefix with the ary ending; for example: * A nullary function takes no arguments. ** Example: f()=2 * A unary function takes one argument. ** Example: f(x)=2x * A binary function takes two arguments. ** Example: ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Scheme
In commutative algebra, the prime spectrum (or simply the spectrum) of a ring ''R'' is the set of all prime ideals of ''R'', and is usually denoted by \operatorname; in algebraic geometry it is simultaneously a topological space equipped with the sheaf of rings \mathcal. Zariski topology For any ideal ''I'' of ''R'', define V_I to be the set of prime ideals containing ''I''. We can put a topology on \operatorname(R) by defining the collection of closed sets to be :\. This topology is called the Zariski topology. A basis for the Zariski topology can be constructed as follows. For ''f'' ∈ ''R'', define ''D''''f'' to be the set of prime ideals of ''R'' not containing ''f''. Then each ''D''''f'' is an open subset of \operatorname(R), and \ is a basis for the Zariski topology. \operatorname(R) is a compact space, but almost never Hausdorff: in fact, the maximal ideals in ''R'' are precisely the closed points in this topology. By the same reasoning, it is not, in general, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differential Form
In mathematics, differential forms provide a unified approach to define integrands over curves, surfaces, solids, and higherdimensional manifolds. The modern notion of differential forms was pioneered by Élie Cartan. It has many applications, especially in geometry, topology and physics. For instance, the expression is an example of a form, and can be integrated over an interval contained in the domain of : :\int_a^b f(x)\,dx. Similarly, the expression is a form that can be integrated over a surface : :\int_S (f(x,y,z)\,dx\wedge dy + g(x,y,z)\,dz\wedge dx + h(x,y,z)\,dy\wedge dz). The symbol denotes the exterior product, sometimes called the ''wedge product'', of two differential forms. Likewise, a form represents a volume element that can be integrated over a region of space. In general, a form is an object that may be integrated over a dimensional manifold, and is homogeneous of degree in the coordinate differentials dx, dy, \ldots. On an dimensional manifold, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Covariance And Contravariance Of Vectors
In physics, especially in multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis. In modern mathematical notation, the role is sometimes swapped. In physics, a basis is sometimes thought of as a set of reference axes. A change of scale on the reference axes corresponds to a change of units in the problem. For instance, by changing scale from meters to centimeters (that is, ''dividing'' the scale of the reference axes by 100), the components of a measured velocity vector are ''multiplied'' by 100. A vector changes scale ''inversely'' to changes in scale to the reference axes, and consequently is called ''contravariant''. As a result, a vector often has units of distance or distance with other units (as, for example, velocity has units of distance divided by time). In contrast, a covector, also called a ''dual vector'', typically has units of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pullback
In mathematics, a pullback is either of two different, but related processes: precomposition and fiberproduct. Its dual is a pushforward. Precomposition Precomposition with a function probably provides the most elementary notion of pullback: in simple terms, a function f of a variable y, where y itself is a function of another variable x, may be written as a function of x. This is the pullback of f by the function y. f(y(x)) \equiv g(x) It is such a fundamental process that it is often passed over without mention. However, it is not just functions that can be "pulled back" in this sense. Pullbacks can be applied to many other objects such as differential forms and their cohomology classes; see * Pullback (differential geometry) * Pullback (cohomology) Fiberproduct The pullback bundle is an example that bridges the notion of a pullback as precomposition, and the notion of a pullback as a Cartesian square. In that example, the base space of a fiber bundle is pulled back, in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Covariance And Contravariance Of Functors
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a functor is a mapping between categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (such as the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and maps between these algebraic objects are associated to continuous maps between spaces. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are important in all areas within mathematics to which category theory is applied. The words ''category'' and ''functor'' were borrowed by mathematicians from the philosophers Aristotle and Rudolf Carnap, respectively. The latter used ''functor'' in a linguistic context; see function word. Definition Let ''C'' and ''D'' be categories. A functor ''F'' from ''C'' to ''D'' is a mapping that * associates each object X in ''C'' to an object F(X) in ''D'', * associates each morphism f \colon X \to Y in ''C'' to a morphism F(f) \colon F(X) \to F(Y ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Submanifold
In mathematics, a submanifold of a manifold ''M'' is a subset ''S'' which itself has the structure of a manifold, and for which the inclusion map satisfies certain properties. There are different types of submanifolds depending on exactly which properties are required. Different authors often have different definitions. Formal definition In the following we assume all manifolds are differentiable manifolds of class ''C''''r'' for a fixed , and all morphisms are differentiable of class ''C''''r''. Immersed submanifolds An immersed submanifold of a manifold ''M'' is the image ''S'' of an immersion map ; in general this image will not be a submanifold as a subset, and an immersion map need not even be injective (onetoone) – it can have selfintersections. More narrowly, one can require that the map be an injection (onetoone), in which we call it an injective immersion, and define an immersed submanifold to be the image subset ''S'' together with a topology and differentia ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometry
Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a ''geometer''. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts. During the 19th century several discoveries enlarged dramatically the scope of geometry. One of the oldest such discoveries is Carl Friedrich Gauss' ("remarkable theorem") that asserts roughly that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent from any specific embedding in a Euclidean space. This implies that surfaces can be studied ''intrinsically'', that is, as standalone spaces, and has been expanded into the theory of manifolds and Riemannian geometry. Later in the 19th century, it appeared that geometries ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homotopy
In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from grc, ὁμός "same, similar" and "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy (, ; , ) between the two functions. A notable use of homotopy is the definition of homotopy groups and cohomotopy groups, important invariants in algebraic topology. In practice, there are technical difficulties in using homotopies with certain spaces. Algebraic topologists work with compactly generated spaces, CW complexes, or spectra. Formal definition Formally, a homotopy between two continuous functions ''f'' and ''g'' from a topological space ''X'' to a topological space ''Y'' is defined to be a continuous function H: X \times ,1\to Y from the product of the space ''X'' with the unit interval , 1to ''Y'' such that H(x,0) = f(x) and H(x,1) = g(x) for all x \in X. If we think of the second ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homotopy Groups
In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, denoted \pi_1(X), which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy groups record information about the basic shape, or ''holes'', of a topological space. To define the ''n''th homotopy group, the basepointpreserving maps from an ''n''dimensional sphere (with base point) into a given space (with base point) are collected into equivalence classes, called homotopy classes. Two mappings are homotopic if one can be continuously deformed into the other. These homotopy classes form a group, called the ''n''th homotopy group, \pi_n(X), of the given space ''X'' with base point. Topological spaces with differing homotopy groups are never equivalent (homeomorphic), but topological spaces that homeomorphic have the same homotopy groups. The notion of homotopy of paths was introduced by Camille Jordan. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Isomorphism
In abstract algebra, a group isomorphism is a function between two groups that sets up a onetoone correspondence between the elements of the groups in a way that respects the given group operations. If there exists an isomorphism between two groups, then the groups are called isomorphic. From the standpoint of group theory, isomorphic groups have the same properties and need not be distinguished. Definition and notation Given two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot), a ''group isomorphism'' from (G, *) to (H, \odot) is a bijective group homomorphism from G to H. Spelled out, this means that a group isomorphism is a bijective function f : G \to H such that for all u and v in G it holds that f(u * v) = f(u) \odot f(v). The two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot) are isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism from one to the other. This is written (G, *) \cong (H, \odot). Often shorter and simpler notations can be used. When the relevant group operations are understood, they are omitted and one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 