Human Female Reproductive System
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Human Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in the reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to pregnancy#Childbirth maturity stages, full term. The internal sex organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovary, ovaries. The female reproductive tract includes the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes and is prone to infections. The vagina allows for sexual intercourse and childbirth, and is connected to the uterus at the cervix. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces secretions which help the transit of sperm to the fallopian tubes, where sperm fertilize ova (egg cells) produced by the ovaries. The external sex organs are also known as the ''genitals'' and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris, and ...
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Scheme Female Reproductive System-number-full-cropped
A scheme is a systematic plan for the implementation of a certain idea. Scheme or schemer may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''The Scheme'' (TV series), a BBC Scotland documentary series * The Scheme (band), an English pop band * ''The Scheme'', an action role-playing video game for the PC-8801, made by Quest Corporation * Schemer (comics), Richard Fisk, a Marvel Comics villain turned antihero * Horace Schemer, a fictional character in the TV series ''Shining Time Station ''Shining Time Station'' is an American children's television series Children's television series (or children's television shows) are television programs designed for children, normally scheduled for broadcast during the morning and aftern ...'' * Schemee, a fictional child character and Schemer's nephew in the TV Series ''Shining Time Station'' * ''Schemers'' (film), a Scottish film Other uses * Classification scheme In information science and ontology (information science), ontology, a class ...
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Egg Cell
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female Reproduction, reproductive cell, or gamete, in most anisogamous organisms (organisms that reproduce sexually with a larger, female gamete and a smaller, male one). The term is used when the female gamete is not capable of movement (non-motile). If the male gamete (sperm) is capable of movement, the type of sexual reproduction is also classified as oogamous. A nonmotile female gamete formed in the oogonium of some algae, fungi, oomycetes, or bryophytes is an oosphere. When fertilized the oosphere becomes the oospore. When egg and sperm fuse during fertilisation, a diploid cell (the zygote) is formed, which rapidly grows into a new organism. History While the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ''ex ovo omne vivum'' ("every living [animal comes from] an egg"), associated with William Harvey (1578–1657), was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals also re ...
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Prenatal Development
Prenatal development () includes the embryonic development, development of the embryo and of the fetus during a viviparity, viviparous animal's gestation. Prenatal development starts with fertilization, in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy, prenatal development is also called antenatal development. The human embryonic development, development of the human embryo follows human fertilization, fertilization, and continues as Fetus#Development in humans, fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both topically (by organ) and chronologically (by time) with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals, but later stages o ...
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Gestation
Gestation is the period of prenatal development, development during the carrying of an embryo, and later fetus, inside Viviparity, viviparous animals (the embryo develops within the parent). It is typical for mammals, but also occurs for some non-mammals. Pregnancy (mammals), Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time, for example in a multiple birth. The time interval of a gestation is called the ''gestation period''. In obstetrics and gynecology, obstetrics, ''Gestational age (obstetrics), gestational age'' refers to the time since the onset of the last Menstruation#Onset and frequency), menses, which on average is Human fertilization#Fertilization age, fertilization age plus two weeks. Mammals In mammals, pregnancy begins when a zygote (fertilized ovum) Implantation (embryology), implants in the female's uterus and ends once the fetus leaves the uterus during labor or an abortion (whether induced or spontaneous). Humans In humans, pregnancy ...
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Implantation (embryo)
Implantation (nidation) is the stage in the embryonic development An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In organisms that Sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell ... of mammals Mammals () are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mammalian female, females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a ... in which the blastocyst The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early embryonic development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) also known as the ''embryoblast'' which subsequently forms the embryo, and an outer layer of trophoblast cells called the t ... hatches as the embryo An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In organisms that Sexual reprodu ...
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Blastocyst
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early embryonic development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) also known as the ''embryoblast'' which subsequently forms the embryo, and an outer layer of trophoblast cells called the trophectoderm. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoel. In the late blastocyst the trophectoderm is known as the trophoblast. The trophoblast gives rise to the chorion and amnion, the two fetal membranes that surround the embryo. The placenta derives from the embryonic chorion (the portion of the chorion that develops Chorionic villi, villi) and the underlying uterine tissue of the mother. The name "blastocyst" arises from the Ancient Greek, Greek ' ("a sprout") and ' ("bladder, capsule"). In other animals this is a structure consisting of an undifferentiated ball of cells and is called a blastula. In humans, blastocyst formation begins about five days after human fertilization, fertiliza ...
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Mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis () is a part of the cell cycle in which replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. Cell division by mitosis gives rise to genetically identical cells in which the total number of chromosomes is maintained. Therefore, mitosis is also known as equational division. In general, mitosis is preceded by S phase of interphase (during which DNA replication occurs) and is often followed by telophase and cytokinesis; which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane of one cell into two new cell (biology), cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. The different stages of mitosis altogether define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the cell division, division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are preprophase (specif ...
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Human Embryogenesis
Human embryonic development, or human embryogenesis, is the development and formation of the human embryo. It is characterised by the processes of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development. In biological terms, the development of the human body entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. Human fertilization, Fertilization occurs when the Spermatozoon, sperm cell successfully enters and Cell fusion, fuses with an egg cell (ovum). The genetic material of the sperm and egg then combine to form the single cell zygote and the germinal stage of development commences. Embryonic development in the human, covers the first eight weeks of development; at the beginning of the ninth week the embryo is termed a fetus. Human embryology is the study of this development during the first eight weeks after fertilization. The normal period of gestation (pregnancy) is about nine months or 40 weeks. The germinal sta ...
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Human Fertilization
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm Sperm is the male reproductive Cell (biology), cell, or gamete, in anisogamous forms of sexual reproduction (forms in which there is a larger, female reproductive cell and a smaller, male one). Animals produce motile sperm with a tail known as ..., occurring primarily in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. The result of this union leads to the production of a fertilized egg called a zygote A zygote (, ) is a eukaryote, eukaryotic cell (biology), cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information of a new individual ..., initiating embryonic development An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In organisms that Sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell ...
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Zygote
A zygote (, ) is a eukaryote, eukaryotic cell (biology), cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information of a new individual organism. In multicellular organisms, the zygote is the earliest developmental stage. In humans and most other Anisogamy, anisogamous organisms, a zygote is formed when an egg cell and sperm, sperm cell come together to create a new unique organism. In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. German zoologists Oscar Hertwig, Oscar and Richard Hertwig made some of the first discoveries on animal zygote formation in the late 19th century. Humans In human fertilization, a released ovum (a haploid secondary oocyte with replicate chromosome copies) and a haploid sperm cell (male gamete) combine to form a single diploid cell called the zygote. Once the single sperm fuses with the ...
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Fertilisation
Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual organism or offspring and initiate its development. Processes such as insemination or pollination which happen before the fusion of gametes are also sometimes informally called fertilisation. The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation. History In Antiquity, Aristotle conceived the formation of new individuals through fusion of male and female fluids, with form and function emerging gradually, in a mode called by him as Epigenesis (biology), epigenetic. In 1784, Spallanzani ...
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Menstrual Cycle
The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes in hormone production and the structures of the uterus and ovaries of the female reproductive system that make pregnancy possible. The ovarian cycle controls the production and release of Egg cell, eggs and the cyclic release of estrogen and progesterone. The uterine cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the lining of the uterus (womb) to receive an embryo. These cycles are concurrent and coordinated, normally last between 21 and 35 days, with a median length of 28 days, and continue for about 30–45 years. Naturally occurring hormones drive the cycles; the cyclical rise and fall of the follicle stimulating hormone prompts the production and growth of oocytes (immature egg cells). The hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus lining (endometrium) to thicken to accommodate an embryo should Human fertilization, fertilization occur. The blood supply of the thickened lining provides nutrients to a successfully Implantation ( ...
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