Effective Interest Rate
The effective interest rate (EIR), effective annual interest rate, annual equivalent rate (AER) or simply effective rate is the percentage of interest on a loan or financial product if compound interest accumulates over a year during which no payments are made. It is the compound interest payable annually in arrears, based on the nominal interest rate. It is used to compare the interest rates between loans with different compounding periods, such as weekly, monthly, halfyearly or yearly. Depending on the jurisdictional definition, the effective interest rate may be higher than the annual percentage rate (APR), since the APR method ''does not take compounding into account''. By contrast, the EIR annualizes the periodic rate ''with compounding''. EIR is the standard in the European Union and many other countries, while APR is often used in the United States. The EIR is more relevant for borrowers who are short of income, because it computes the effects of compounding assuming '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Interest Rate
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited, or borrowed (called the principal sum). The total interest on an amount lent or borrowed depends on the principal sum, the interest rate, the compounding frequency, and the length of time over which it is lent, deposited, or borrowed. The annual interest rate is the rate over a period of one year. Other interest rates apply over different periods, such as a month or a day, but they are usually annualized. The interest rate has been characterized as "an index of the preference . . . for a dollar of present ncomeover a dollar of future income." The borrower wants, or needs, to have money sooner rather than later, and is willing to pay a fee—the interest rate—for that privilege. Influencing factors Interest rates vary according to: * the government's directives to the central bank to accomplish the government's goals * the currency of the principal sum lent or borrowed * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nominal Interest Rate
In finance and economics, the nominal interest rate or nominal rate of interest is the rate of interest stated on a loan or investment, without any adjustments or fees. Examples of adjustments or fees # An adjustment for inflation(in contrast with the real interest rate) # Compound interest (also referred to as the nominal annual rate). Nominal versus real interest rate The concept of real interest rate is useful to account for the impact of inflation. In the case of a loan, it is this real interest that the lender effectively receives. For example, if the lender is receiving 8 percent from a loan and the inflation rate is also 8 percent, then the (effective) real rate of interest is zero: despite the increased nominal amount of currency received, the lender would have no monetary value benefit from such a loan because each unit of currency would get devaluated due to inflation by the same factor as the nominal amount gets increased. The relationship between the real interest val ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Annual Percentage Rate
The term annual percentage rate of charge (APR), corresponding sometimes to a nominal APR and sometimes to an effective APR (EAPR), is the interest rate for a whole year (annualized), rather than just a monthly fee/rate, as applied on a loan, mortgage loan, credit card, etc. It is a finance charge expressed as an annual rate. Those terms have formal, legal definitions in some countries or legal jurisdictions, but in the United States: :* The ''nominal APR'' is the simpleinterest rate (for a year). :* The ''effective APR'' is the fee+ compound interest rate (calculated across a year). "Subject: Regulation AA", Alfred F."Bob" Blair, Jr., US Federal Reserve, 20080628, webpage: USFederalReserveR1314 In some areas, the ''annual percentage rate'' (APR) is the simplified counterpart to the effective interest rate that the borrower will pay on a loan. In many countries and jurisdictions, lenders (such as banks) are required to disclose the "cost" of borrowing in some standardize ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Annual Percentage Yield
Annual percentage yield (APY) is a normalized representation of an interest rate, based on a compounding period of one year. APY figures allow a reasonable, singlepoint comparison of different offerings with varying compounding schedules. However, it does not account for the possibility of account fees affecting the net gain. APY generally refers to the rate paid to a depositor by a financial institution, while the analogous annual percentage rate (APR) refers to the rate paid to a financial institution by a borrower. To promote financial products that do not involve debt, banks and other firms will often quote the APY (as opposed to the APR because the APY represents the customer receiving a higher return at the end of the term). For example, a certificate of deposit that has a 4.65% APR, compounded monthly, would instead be quoted as a 4.75% APY. Equation One common mathematical definition of APY uses this effective interest rate formula, but the precise usage may depend on lo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Certificate Of Deposit
A certificate of deposit (CD) is a time deposit, a financial product commonly sold by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions in the United States. CDs differ from savings accounts in that the CD has a specific, fixed term (often one, three, or six months, or one to five years) and usually, a fixed interest rate. The bank expects the CD to be held until maturity, at which time they can be withdrawn and interest paid. Like savings accounts, CDs are insured "money in the bank" (in the US up to $250,000) and thus, up to the local insured deposit limit, virtually risk free. In the US, CDs are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for banks and by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) for credit unions. In exchange for the customer depositing the money for an agreed term, institutions usually offer higher interest rates than they do on accounts that customers can withdraw from on demand—though this may not be the case in an inverted yield cu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bank
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indirectly through capital markets. Because banks play an important role in financial stability and the economy of a country, most jurisdictions exercise a high degree of regulation over banks. Most countries have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking, under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the fourteenth century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways functioned as a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

E (mathematical Constant)
The number , also known as Euler's number, is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 2.71828 that can be characterized in many ways. It is the base of the natural logarithms. It is the limit of as approaches infinity, an expression that arises in the study of compound interest. It can also be calculated as the sum of the infinite series e = \sum\limits_^ \frac = 1 + \frac + \frac + \frac + \cdots. It is also the unique positive number such that the graph of the function has a slope of 1 at . The (natural) exponential function is the unique function that equals its own derivative and satisfies the equation ; hence one can also define as . The natural logarithm, or logarithm to base , is the inverse function to the natural exponential function. The natural logarithm of a number can be defined directly as the area under the curve between and , in which case is the value of for which this area equals one (see image). There are various other characteriz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Internal Rate Of Return
Internal rate of return (IRR) is a method of calculating an investment’s rate of return. The term ''internal'' refers to the fact that the calculation excludes external factors, such as the riskfree rate, inflation, the cost of capital, or financial risk. The method may be applied either expost or exante. Applied exante, the IRR is an estimate of a future annual rate of return. Applied expost, it measures the actual achieved investment return of a historical investment. It is also called the discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFROR)Project Economics and Decision Analysis, Volume I: Deterministic Models, M.A.Main, Page 269 or yield rate. Definition (IRR) The internal rate of return on an investment or project is the "annualized effective compounded return rate" or rate of return that sets the net present value of all cash flows (both positive and negative) from the investment equal to zero. Equivalently, it is the interest rate at which the net present value of the f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Effective Interest Method
Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression. Etymology The origin of the word "effective" stems from the Latin word effectīvus, which means creative, productive or effective. It surfaced in Middle English between 1300 and 1400 A.D. Usage In mathematics and logic, ''effective'' is used to describe metalogical methods that fit the criteria of an effective procedure. In group theory, a group element acts ''effectively'' (or ''faithfully'') on a point, if that point is not fixed by the action. In physics, an effective theory is, similar to a phenomenological theory, a framework intended to explain certain (observed) effects without the claim that the theory correctly models the underlying (unobserved) processes. In heat transfer, ''effectiveness'' is a measure of the performance of a heat exchan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Interest Rate
The real interest rate is the rate of interest an investor, saver or lender receives (or expects to receive) after allowing for inflation. It can be described more formally by the Fisher equation, which states that the real interest rate is approximately the nominal interest rate minus the inflation rate. If, for example, an investor were able to lock in a 5% interest rate for the coming year and anticipated a 2% rise in prices, they would expect to earn a real interest rate of 3%. The expected real interest rate is not a single number, as different investors have different expectations of future inflation. Since the inflation rate over the course of a loan is not known initially, volatility in inflation represents a risk to both the lender and the borrower. In the case of contracts stated in terms of the nominal interest rate, the real interest rate is known only at the end of the period of the loan, based on the realized inflation rate; this is called the expost real interes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Versus Nominal Value (economics)
In economics, nominal value is measured in terms of money, whereas real value is measured against goods or services. A real value is one which has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if the prices of goods had not changed on average; therefore, changes in real value exclude the effect of inflation. In contrast, a nominal value has not been adjusted for inflation, and so changes in nominal value reflect at least in part the effect of inflation but will not hold the same purchasing power. Commodity bundles, price indices and inflation A commodity bundle is a sample of goods, which is used to represent the sum total of goods across the economy to which the goods belong, for the purpose of comparison across different times (or locations). At a single point of time, a commodity bundle consists of a list of goods, and each good in the list has a market price and a quantity. The market value of the good is the market price times the quantity at that poin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 