Dual (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, duality is a correspondence between the properties of a category ''C'' and the dual properties of the opposite category ''C''op. Given a statement regarding the category ''C'', by interchanging the source and target of each morphism as well as interchanging the order of composing two morphisms, a corresponding dual statement is obtained regarding the opposite category ''C''op. Duality, as such, is the assertion that truth is invariant under this operation on statements. In other words, if a statement is true about ''C'', then its dual statement is true about ''C''op. Also, if a statement is false about ''C'', then its dual has to be false about ''C''op. Given a concrete category ''C'', it is often the case that the opposite category ''C''op per se is abstract. ''C''op need not be a category that arises from mathematical practice. In this case, another category ''D'' is also termed to be in duality with ''C'' if ''D'' and ''C''op are e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism compos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice Theory
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra. It consists of a partially ordered set in which every pair of elements has a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet). An example is given by the power set of a set, partially ordered by inclusion, for which the supremum is the union and the infimum is the intersection. Another example is given by the natural numbers, partially ordered by divisibility, for which the supremum is the least common multiple and the infimum is the greatest common divisor. Lattices can also be characterized as algebraic structures satisfying certain axiomatic identities. Since the two definitions are equivalent, lattice theory draws on both order theory and universal algebra. Semilattices include lattices, which in turn include Heyting and Boolean algebras. These ''latticelike'' structures all admit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Adjoint Functor
In mathematics, specifically category theory, adjunction is a relationship that two functors may exhibit, intuitively corresponding to a weak form of equivalence between two related categories. Two functors that stand in this relationship are known as adjoint functors, one being the left adjoint and the other the right adjoint. Pairs of adjoint functors are ubiquitous in mathematics and often arise from constructions of "optimal solutions" to certain problems (i.e., constructions of objects having a certain universal property), such as the construction of a free group on a set in algebra, or the construction of the Stone–Čech compactification of a topological space in topology. By definition, an adjunction between categories \mathcal and \mathcal is a pair of functors (assumed to be covariant) :F: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and G: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and, for all objects X in \mathcal and Y in \mathcal a bijection between the respective morphism s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Opposite Category
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the opposite category or dual category ''C''op of a given category ''C'' is formed by reversing the morphisms, i.e. interchanging the source and target of each morphism. Doing the reversal twice yields the original category, so the opposite of an opposite category is the original category itself. In symbols, (C^)^ = C. Examples * An example comes from reversing the direction of inequalities in a partial order. So if ''X'' is a set and ≤ a partial order relation, we can define a new partial order relation ≤op by :: ''x'' ≤op ''y'' if and only if ''y'' ≤ ''x''. : The new order is commonly called dual order of ≤, and is mostly denoted by ≥. Therefore, duality plays an important role in order theory and every purely order theoretic concept has a dual. For example, there are opposite pairs child/parent, descendant/ancestor, infimum/supremum, downset/ upset, ideal/filter etc. This order theoretic duality is in turn a special c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Duality (mathematics)
In mathematics, a duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a onetoone fashion, often (but not always) by means of an involution operation: if the dual of is , then the dual of is . Such involutions sometimes have fixed points, so that the dual of is itself. For example, Desargues' theorem is selfdual in this sense under the ''standard duality in projective geometry''. In mathematical contexts, ''duality'' has numerous meanings. It has been described as "a very pervasive and important concept in (modern) mathematics" and "an important general theme that has manifestations in almost every area of mathematics". Many mathematical dualities between objects of two types correspond to pairings, bilinear functions from an object of one type and another object of the second type to some family of scalars. For instance, ''linear algebra duality'' corresponds in this way to bilinear maps from pairs of vecto ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dual Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a dual object is an analogue of a dual vector space from linear algebra for objects in arbitrary monoidal categories. It is only a partial generalization, based upon the categorical properties of duality for finitedimensional vector spaces. An object admitting a dual is called a dualizable object. In this formalism, infinitedimensional vector spaces are not dualizable, since the dual vector space ''V''∗ doesn't satisfy the axioms. Often, an object is dualizable only when it satisfies some finiteness or compactness property. A category in which each object has a dual is called autonomous or rigid. The category of finitedimensional vector spaces with the standard tensor product is rigid, while the category of all vector spaces is not. Motivation Let ''V'' be a finitedimensional vector space over some field ''K''. The standard notion of a dual vector space ''V''∗ has the following property: for any ''K''vector spaces ''U'' an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eckmann–Hilton Duality
In the mathematical disciplines of algebraic topology and homotopy theory, Eckmann–Hilton duality in its most basic form, consists of taking a given diagram for a particular concept and reversing the direction of all arrows, much as in category theory with the idea of the opposite category. A significantly deeper form argues that the fact that the dual notion of a limit is a colimit allows us to change the Eilenberg–Steenrod axioms for homology to give axioms for cohomology. It is named after Beno Eckmann and Peter Hilton. Discussion An example is given by currying, which tells us that for any object X, a map X \times I \to Y is the same as a map X \to Y^I, where Y^I is the exponential object, given by all maps from I to Y . In the case of topological spaces, if we take I to be the unit interval, this leads to a duality between X \times I and Y^I, which then gives a duality between the reduced suspension \Sigma X, which is a quotient of X \times I, and th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homotopy Theory
In mathematics, homotopy theory is a systematic study of situations in which maps can come with homotopies between them. It originated as a topic in algebraic topology but nowadays is studied as an independent discipline. Besides algebraic topology, the theory has also been used in other areas of mathematics such as algebraic geometry (e.g., A1 homotopy theory) and category theory (specifically the study of higher categories). Concepts Spaces and maps In homotopy theory and algebraic topology, the word "space" denotes a topological space. In order to avoid pathologies, one rarely works with arbitrary spaces; instead, one requires spaces to meet extra constraints, such as being compactly generated, or Hausdorff, or a CW complex. In the same vein as above, a "map" is a continuous function, possibly with some extra constraints. Often, one works with a pointed space  that is, a space with a "distinguished point", called a basepoint. A pointed map is then a map which preserv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Topology
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariant (mathematics), invariants that classification theorem, classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to Homotopy#Homotopy equivalence and nullhomotopy, homotopy equivalence. Although algebraic topology primarily uses algebra to study topological problems, using topology to solve algebraic problems is sometimes also possible. Algebraic topology, for example, allows for a convenient proof that any subgroup of a free group is again a free group. Main branches of algebraic topology Below are some of the main areas studied in algebraic topology: Homotopy groups In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy gro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cofibration
In mathematics, in particular homotopy theory, a continuous mapping :i: A \to X, where A and X are topological spaces, is a cofibration if it lets homotopy classes of maps ,S/math> be extended to homotopy classes of maps ,S/math> whenever a map f \in \text_(A,S) can be extended to a map f' \in \text_(X,S) where f'\circ i = f, hence their associated homotopy classes are equal = '\circ i/math>. This type of structure can be encoded with the technical condition of having the homotopy extension property with respect to all spaces S. This definition is dual to that of a fibration, which is required to satisfy the homotopy lifting property with respect to all spaces. This duality is informally referred to as Eckmann–Hilton duality. Because of the generality this technical condition is stated, it can be used in model categories. Definition Homotopy theory In what follows, let I = ,1/math> denote the unit interval. A map i\colon A \to X of topological spaces is called a cofi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fibration
The notion of a fibration generalizes the notion of a fiber bundle and plays an important role in algebraic topology, a branch of mathematics. Fibrations are used, for example, in postnikovsystems or obstruction theory. In this article, all mappings are continuous mappings between topological spaces. Formal definitions Homotopy lifting property A mapping p \colon E \to B satisfies the homotopy lifting property for a space X if: * for every homotopy h \colon X \times , 1\to B and * for every mapping (also called lift) \tilde h_0 \colon X \to E lifting h, _ = h_0 (i.e. h_0 = p \circ \tilde h_0) there exists a (not necessarily unique) homotopy \tilde h \colon X \times , 1\to E lifting h (i.e. h = p \circ \tilde h) with \tilde h_0 = \tilde h, _. The following commutative diagram shows the situation:^ Fibration A fibration (also called Hurewicz fibration) is a mapping p \colon E \to B satisfying the homotopy lifting property for all spaces X. The space B is called base ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the abstract notion of a limit captures the essential properties of universal constructions such as products, pullbacks and inverse limits. The dual notion of a colimit generalizes constructions such as disjoint unions, direct sums, coproducts, pushouts and direct limits. Limits and colimits, like the strongly related notions of universal properties and adjoint functors, exist at a high level of abstraction. In order to understand them, it is helpful to first study the specific examples these concepts are meant to generalize. Definition Limits and colimits in a category C are defined by means of diagrams in C. Formally, a diagram of shape J in C is a functor from J to C: :F:J\to C. The category J is thought of as an index category, and the diagram F is thought of as indexing a collection of objects and morphisms in C patterned on J. One is most often interested in the case where the category J is a small or even finite category. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 