Cone (formal Languages)
In formal language theory, a cone is a set of formal languages that has some desirable closure properties enjoyed by some wellknown sets of languages, in particular by the families of regular languages, contextfree languages and the recursively enumerable languages. The concept of a cone is a more abstract notion that subsumes all of these families. A similar notion is the faithful cone, having somewhat relaxed conditions. For example, the contextsensitive languages do not form a cone, but still have the required properties to form a faithful cone. The terminology ''cone'' has a French origin. In the American oriented literature one usually speaks of a ''full trio''. The ''trio'' corresponds to the faithful cone. Definition A cone is a family \mathcal of languages such that \mathcal contains at least one nonempty language, and for any L \in \mathcal over some alphabet \Sigma, * if h is a homomorphism from \Sigma^\ast to some \Delta^\ast, the language h(L) is in \mathcal; * if h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Language Theory
In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are wellformed according to a specific set of rules. The alphabet of a formal language consists of symbols, letters, or tokens that concatenate into strings of the language. Each string concatenated from symbols of this alphabet is called a word, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called ''wellformed words'' or ''wellformed formulas''. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar such as a regular grammar or contextfree grammar, which consists of its formation rules. In computer science, formal languages are used among others as the basis for defining the grammar of programming languages and formalized versions of subsets of natural languages in which the words of the language represent concepts that are associated with particular meanings or semantics. In computational complexity ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Language
In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are wellformed according to a specific set of rules. The alphabet of a formal language consists of symbols, letters, or tokens that concatenate into strings of the language. Each string concatenated from symbols of this alphabet is called a word, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called ''wellformed words'' or ''wellformed formulas''. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar such as a regular grammar or contextfree grammar, which consists of its formation rules. In computer science, formal languages are used among others as the basis for defining the grammar of programming languages and formalized versions of subsets of natural languages in which the words of the language represent concepts that are associated with particular meanings or semantics. In computational complexity ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Closure (mathematics)
In mathematics, a subset of a given set is closed under an operation of the larger set if performing that operation on members of the subset always produces a member of that subset. For example, the natural numbers are closed under addition, but not under subtraction: is not a natural number, although both 1 and 2 are. Similarly, a subset is said to be closed under a ''collection'' of operations if it is closed under each of the operations individually. The closure of a subset is the result of a closure operator applied to the subset. The ''closure'' of a subset under some operations is the smallest subset that is closed under these operations. It is often called the ''span'' (for example linear span) or the ''generated set''. Definitions Let be a set equipped with one or several methods for producing elements of from other elements of . Operations and (partial) multivariate function are examples of such methods. If is a topological space, the limit of a sequence of element ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Language
In theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a regular language (also called a rational language) is a formal language that can be defined by a regular expression, in the strict sense in theoretical computer science (as opposed to many modern regular expressions engines, which are augmented with features that allow recognition of nonregular languages). Alternatively, a regular language can be defined as a language recognized by a finite automaton. The equivalence of regular expressions and finite automata is known as Kleene's theorem (after American mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene). In the Chomsky hierarchy, regular languages are the languages generated by Type3 grammars. Formal definition The collection of regular languages over an alphabet Σ is defined recursively as follows: * The empty language Ø is a regular language. * For each ''a'' ∈ Σ (''a'' belongs to Σ), the singleton language is a regular language. * If ''A'' is a regular language, ''A''* ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Contextfree Language
In formal language theory, a contextfree language (CFL) is a language generated by a contextfree grammar (CFG). Contextfree languages have many applications in programming languages, in particular, most arithmetic expressions are generated by contextfree grammars. Background Contextfree grammar Different contextfree grammars can generate the same contextfree language. Intrinsic properties of the language can be distinguished from extrinsic properties of a particular grammar by comparing multiple grammars that describe the language. Automata The set of all contextfree languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata, which makes these languages amenable to parsing. Further, for a given CFG, there is a direct way to produce a pushdown automaton for the grammar (and thereby the corresponding language), though going the other way (producing a grammar given an automaton) is not as direct. Examples An example contextfree language is L = \, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Recursively Enumerable Language
In mathematics, logic and computer science, a formal language is called recursively enumerable (also recognizable, partially decidable, semidecidable, Turingacceptable or Turingrecognizable) if it is a recursively enumerable subset in the set of all possible words over the alphabet of the language, i.e., if there exists a Turing machine which will enumerate all valid strings of the language. Recursively enumerable languages are known as type0 languages in the Chomsky hierarchy of formal languages. All regular, contextfree, contextsensitive and recursive languages are recursively enumerable. The class of all recursively enumerable languages is called RE. Definitions There are three equivalent definitions of a recursively enumerable language: # A recursively enumerable language is a recursively enumerable subset in the set of all possible words over the alphabet of the language. # A recursively enumerable language is a formal language for which there exists a Turing mach ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Contextsensitive Language
In formal language theory, a contextsensitive language is a language that can be defined by a contextsensitive grammar (and equivalently by a noncontracting grammar). Contextsensitive is one of the four types of grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy. Computational properties Computationally, a contextsensitive language is equivalent to a linear bounded nondeterministic Turing machine, also called a linear bounded automaton. That is a nondeterministic Turing machine with a tape of only kn cells, where n is the size of the input and k is a constant associated with the machine. This means that every formal language that can be decided by such a machine is a contextsensitive language, and every contextsensitive language can be decided by such a machine. This set of languages is also known as NLINSPACE or NSPACE(''O''(''n'')), because they can be accepted using linear space on a nondeterministic Turing machine. The class LINSPACE (or DSPACE(''O''(''n''))) is defined the same, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homomorphism
In algebra, a homomorphism is a structurepreserving map between two algebraic structures of the same type (such as two groups, two rings, or two vector spaces). The word ''homomorphism'' comes from the Ancient Greek language: () meaning "same" and () meaning "form" or "shape". However, the word was apparently introduced to mathematics due to a (mis)translation of German meaning "similar" to meaning "same". The term "homomorphism" appeared as early as 1892, when it was attributed to the German mathematician Felix Klein (1849–1925). Homomorphisms of vector spaces are also called linear maps, and their study is the subject of linear algebra. The concept of homomorphism has been generalized, under the name of morphism, to many other structures that either do not have an underlying set, or are not algebraic. This generalization is the starting point of category theory. A homomorphism may also be an isomorphism, an endomorphism, an automorphism, etc. (see below). Each of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chomsky Hierarchy
In formal language theory, computer science and linguistics, the Chomsky hierarchy (also referred to as the Chomsky–Schützenberger hierarchy) is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars. This hierarchy of grammars was described by Noam Chomsky in 1956. It is also named after MarcelPaul Schützenberger, who played a crucial role in the development of the theory of formal languages. Formal grammars A formal grammar of this type consists of a finite set of '' production rules'' (''lefthand side'' → ''righthand side''), where each side consists of a finite sequence of the following symbols: * a finite set of ''nonterminal symbols'' (indicating that some production rule can yet be applied) * a finite set of ''terminal symbols'' (indicating that no production rule can be applied) * a ''start symbol'' (a distinguished nonterminal symbol) A formal grammar provides an axiom schema for (or ''generates'') a ''formal language'', which is a (usually infinite) s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite State Transducer
A finitestate transducer (FST) is a finitestate machine with two memory ''tapes'', following the terminology for Turing machines: an input tape and an output tape. This contrasts with an ordinary finitestate automaton, which has a single tape. An FST is a type of finitestate automaton (FSA) that maps between two sets of symbols. An FST is more general than an FSA. An FSA defines a formal language by defining a set of accepted strings, while an FST defines relations between sets of strings. An FST will read a set of strings on the input tape and generates a set of relations on the output tape. An FST can be thought of as a translator or relater between strings in a set. In morphological parsing, an example would be inputting a string of letters into the FST, the FST would then output a string of morphemes. Overview An automaton can be said to ''recognize'' a string if we view the content of its tape as input. In other words, the automaton computes a function that maps ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Family Of Languages
In computer science, in particular in the field of formal language theory, an abstract family of languages is an abstract mathematical notion generalizing characteristics common to the regular languages, the contextfree languages and the recursively enumerable languages, and other families of formal languages studied in the scientific literature. Formal definitions A ''formal language'' is a set for which there exists a finite set of abstract symbols such that L \subseteq\Sigma^*, where * is the Kleene star operation. A ''family of languages'' is an ordered pair (\Sigma,\Lambda), where # is an infinite set of symbols; # is a set of formal languages; # For each in there exists a finite subset \Sigma_1 \subset \Sigma such that L \subseteq \Sigma_1^*; and # for some in . A ''trio'' is a family of languages closed under efree homomorphism, inverse homomorphism, and intersection with regular language. A ''full trio,'' also called a ''cone,'' is a trio closed under arbitra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Seymour Ginsburg
Seymour Ginsburg (December 12, 1927 – December 5, 2004) was an American pioneer of automata theory, formal language theory, and database theory, in particular; and computer science, in general. His work was influential in distinguishing theoretical Computer Science from the disciplines of Mathematics and Electrical Engineering. During his career, Ginsburg published over 100 papers and three books on various topics in theoretical Computer Science. Biography Seymour Ginsburg received his B.S. from City College of New York in 1948, where along with fellow student Martin Davis he attended an honors mathematics class taught by Emil Post. He earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan in 1952, studying under Ben Dushnik. Ginsburg's professional career began in 1951 when he accepted a position as assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida. He turned his attention wholly towards computer science in 1955 when he moved ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 