Concatenation
In formal language, formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character string (computer science), character strings wikt:endtoend, endtoend. For example, the concatenation of "snow" and "ball" is "snowball". In certain formalisations of concatenation theory, also called string theory, string concatenation is a primitive notion. Syntax In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary operation, binary infix operator. The + (plus) operator is often operator overloading, overloaded to denote concatenation for string arguments: "Hello, " + "World" has the value "Hello, World". In other languages there is a separate operator, particularly to specify implicit type conversion to string, as opposed to more complicated behavior for generic plus. Examples include . in Edinburgh IMP, Perl, and PHP, .. in Lua (programming language), Lua, and & in Ada, AppleScript, and Visual Basic. Other syntax exists, like ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

String Literal
A string literal (computer programming), literal or anonymous string is a String (computer science), string value in the source code of a computer program. Modern Computer programming, programming languages commonly use a quoted sequence of characters, formally "#Bracketed delimiters, bracketed delimiters", as in x = "foo", where "foo" is a string Literal (computer programming), literal with value foo. Methods such as #Escape sequences, escape sequences can be used to avoid the problem of #Delimiter collision, delimiter collision (issues with brackets) and allow the delimiters to be embedded in a string. There are many alternate notations for specifying string literals especially in complicated cases. The exact notation depends on the programming language in question. Nevertheless, there are general guidelines that most modern programming languages follow. Syntax Bracketed delimiters Most modern programming languages use delimiter#Bracket delimiters, bracket delimiters (also ba ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

String Literal Concatenation
A string literal or anonymous string is a string value in the source code of a computer program. Modern programming languages commonly use a quoted sequence of characters, formally " bracketed delimiters", as in x = "foo", where "foo" is a string literal with value foo. Methods such as escape sequences can be used to avoid the problem of delimiter collision (issues with brackets) and allow the delimiters to be embedded in a string. There are many alternate notations for specifying string literals especially in complicated cases. The exact notation depends on the programming language in question. Nevertheless, there are general guidelines that most modern programming languages follow. Syntax Bracketed delimiters Most modern programming languages use bracket delimiters (also balanced delimiters) to specify string literals. Double quotations are the most common quoting delimiters used: "Hi There!" An empty string is literally written by a pair of quotes with no character a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Monoid
In abstract algebra, the free monoid on a set is the monoid whose elements are all the finite sequences (or strings) of zero or more elements from that set, with string concatenation as the monoid operation and with the unique sequence of zero elements, often called the empty string and denoted by ε or λ, as the identity element. The free monoid on a set ''A'' is usually denoted ''A''∗. The free semigroup on ''A'' is the subsemigroup of ''A''∗ containing all elements except the empty string. It is usually denoted ''A''+./ref> More generally, an abstract monoid (or semigroup) ''S'' is described as free if it is isomorphic to the free monoid (or semigroup) on some set. As the name implies, free monoids and semigroups are those objects which satisfy the usual universal property defining free objects, in the respective categories of monoids and semigroups. It follows that every monoid (or semigroup) arises as a homomorphic image of a free monoid (or semigroup). The study ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Character String (computer Science)
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation). A string is generally considered as a data type and is often implemented as an array data structure of bytes (or words) that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding. ''String'' may also denote more general arrays or other sequence (or list) data types and structures. Depending on the programming language and precise data type used, a variable declared to be a string may either cause storage in memory to be statically allocated for a predetermined maximum length or employ dynamic allocation to allow it to hold a variable number of elements. When a string appears literally in source code, it is known as a string literal or an anonymous string. In formal languages, which are used in mathematical l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Language
In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are wellformed according to a specific set of rules. The alphabet of a formal language consists of symbols, letters, or tokens that concatenate into strings of the language. Each string concatenated from symbols of this alphabet is called a word, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called ''wellformed words'' or ''wellformed formulas''. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar such as a regular grammar or contextfree grammar, which consists of its formation rules. In computer science, formal languages are used among others as the basis for defining the grammar of programming languages and formalized versions of subsets of natural languages in which the words of the language represent concepts that are associated with particular meanings or semantics. In computational complexity ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associative Property
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any real ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Expressions
A regular expression (shortened as regex or regexp; sometimes referred to as rational expression) is a sequence of characters that specifies a search pattern in text. Usually such patterns are used by stringsearching algorithms for "find" or "find and replace" operations on strings, or for input validation. Regular expression techniques are developed in theoretical computer science and formal language theory. The concept of regular expressions began in the 1950s, when the American mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene formalized the concept of a regular language. They came into common use with Unix textprocessing utilities. Different syntaxes for writing regular expressions have existed since the 1980s, one being the POSIX standard and another, widely used, being the Perl syntax. Regular expressions are used in search engines, in search and replace dialogs of word processors and text editors, in text processing utilities such as sed and AWK, and in lexical analysis. Most gener ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concatenation Theory
Concatenation theory, also called string theory, characterstring theory, or theoretical syntax, studies character strings over finite alphabets of characters, signs, symbols, or marks. String theory is foundational for formal linguistics, computer science, logic, and metamathematics especially proof theory. A generative grammar can be seen as a recursive definition in string theory. The most basic operation on strings is concatenation; connect two strings to form a longer string whose length is the sum of the lengths of those two strings. ABCDE is the concatenation of AB with CDE, in symbols ABCDE = AB ^ CDE. Strings, and concatenation of strings can be treated as an algebraic system with some properties resembling those of the addition of integers; in modern mathematics, this system is called a free monoid. In 1956 Alonzo Church wrote: "Like any branch of mathematics, theoretical syntax may, and ultimately must, be studied by the axiomatic method". Church was evidently unaware ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semiring
In abstract algebra, a semiring is an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse. The term rig is also used occasionally—this originated as a joke, suggesting that rigs are ri''n''gs without ''n''egative elements, similar to using '' rng'' to mean a r''i''ng without a multiplicative ''i''dentity. Tropical semirings are an active area of research, linking algebraic varieties with piecewise linear structures. Definition A semiring is a set R equipped with two binary operations \,+\, and \,\cdot,\, called addition and multiplication, such that:Lothaire (2005) p.211Sakarovitch (2009) pp.27–28 * (R, +) is a commutative monoid with identity element 0: ** (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ** 0 + a = a = a + 0 ** a + b = b + a * (R, \,\cdot\,) is a monoid with identity element 1: ** (a \cdot b) \cdot c = a \cdot (b \cdot c) ** 1 \cdot a = a = a \cdot 1 * Multiplication left and right distributes over addition: * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Null String
In formal language theory, the empty string, or empty word, is the unique string of length zero. Formal theory Formally, a string is a finite, ordered sequence of characters such as letters, digits or spaces. The empty string is the special case where the sequence has length zero, so there are no symbols in the string. There is only one empty string, because two strings are only different if they have different lengths or a different sequence of symbols. In formal treatments, the empty string is denoted with ε or sometimes Λ or λ. The empty string should not be confused with the empty language ∅, which is a formal language (i.e. a set of strings) that contains no strings, not even the empty string. The empty string has several properties: * , ε, = 0. Its string length is zero. * ε ⋅ s = s ⋅ ε = s. The empty string is the identity element of the concatenation operation. The set of all strings forms a free monoid with respect to ⋅ and ε. * εR = ε. Reversal o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pattern Matching
In computer science, pattern matching is the act of checking a given sequence of tokens for the presence of the constituents of some pattern. In contrast to pattern recognition, the match usually has to be exact: "either it will or will not be a match." The patterns generally have the form of either sequences or tree structures. Uses of pattern matching include outputting the locations (if any) of a pattern within a token sequence, to output some component of the matched pattern, and to substitute the matching pattern with some other token sequence (i.e., search and replace). Sequence patterns (e.g., a text string) are often described using regular expressions and matched using techniques such as backtracking. Tree patterns are used in some programming languages as a general tool to process data based on its structure, e.g. C#, F#, Haskell, ML, Python, Ruby, Rust, Scala, Swift and the symbolic mathematics language Mathematica have special syntax for expressing tree patt ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Operator Overloading
In computer programming, operator overloading, sometimes termed ''operator ad hoc polymorphism'', is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments. Operator overloading is generally defined by a programming language, a programmer, or both. Rationale Operator overloading is syntactic sugar, and is used because it allows programming using notation nearer to the target domain and allows userdefined types a similar level of syntactic support as types built into a language. It is common, for example, in scientific computing, where it allows computing representations of mathematical objects to be manipulated with the same syntax as on paper. Operator overloading does not change the expressive power of a language (with functions), as it can be emulated using function calls. For example, consider variables , and of some userdefined type, such as matrices: In a language that supports operator overloading, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 