Category Of Rings
In mathematics, the category of rings, denoted by Ring, is the category whose objects are rings (with identity) and whose morphisms are ring homomorphisms (that preserve the identity). Like many categories in mathematics, the category of rings is large, meaning that the class of all rings is proper. As a concrete category The category Ring is a concrete category meaning that the objects are sets with additional structure (addition and multiplication) and the morphisms are functions that preserve this structure. There is a natural forgetful functor :''U'' : Ring → Set for the category of rings to the category of sets which sends each ring to its underlying set (thus "forgetting" the operations of addition and multiplication). This functor has a left adjoint :''F'' : Set → Ring which assigns to each set ''X'' the free ring generated by ''X''. One can also view the category of rings as a concrete category over Ab (the category of abelian groups) or over Mon (the category of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The symbo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Ring
In ring theory, a branch of mathematics, the zero ring or trivial ring is the unique ring (up to isomorphism) consisting of one element. (Less commonly, the term "zero ring" is used to refer to any rng of square zero, i.e., a rng in which for all ''x'' and ''y''. This article refers to the oneelement ring.) In the category of rings, the zero ring is the terminal object, whereas the ring of integers Z is the initial object. Definition The zero ring, denoted or simply 0, consists of the oneelement set with the operations + and · defined such that 0 + 0 = 0 and 0 · 0 = 0. Properties * The zero ring is the unique ring in which the additive identity 0 and multiplicative identity 1 coincide. (Proof: If in a ring ''R'', then for all ''r'' in ''R'', we have . The proof of the last equality is found here.) * The zero ring is commutative. * The element 0 in the zero ring is a unit, serving as its own multiplicative inverse. * The unit group of the zero ring is the trivial gr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Initial Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every oneelement set (singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every onepoint space is a terminal object in this category. * In t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coequalizer
In category theory, a coequalizer (or coequaliser) is a generalization of a quotient by an equivalence relation to objects in an arbitrary category. It is the categorical construction dual to the equalizer. Definition A coequalizer is a colimit of the diagram consisting of two objects ''X'' and ''Y'' and two parallel morphisms ''f'', ''g'' : ''X'' → ''Y''. More explicitly, a coequalizer can be defined as an object ''Q'' together with a morphism ''q'' : ''Y'' → ''Q'' such that ''q'' ∘ ''f'' = ''q'' ∘ ''g''. Moreover, the pair (''Q'', ''q'') must be universal in the sense that given any other such pair (''Q''′, ''q''′) there exists a unique morphism ''u'' : ''Q'' → ''Q''′ such that ''u'' ∘ ''q'' = ''q''′. This information can be captured by the following commutative diagram: As with all universal constructions, a coequalizer, if it exists, is unique up to a unique isomorphism (this is why, by abuse of language, one sometimes speaks of " ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coproduct
In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces. The coproduct of a family of objects is essentially the "least specific" object to which each object in the family admits a morphism. It is the categorytheoretic dual notion to the categorical product, which means the definition is the same as the product but with all arrows reversed. Despite this seemingly innocuous change in the name and notation, coproducts can be and typically are dramatically different from products. Definition Let C be a category and let X_1 and X_2 be objects of C. An object is called the coproduct of X_1 and X_2, written X_1 \sqcup X_2, or X_1 \oplus X_2, or sometimes simply X_1 + X_2, if there exist morphisms i_1 : X_1 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 and i_2 : X_2 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 satisfying the following universal property: for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Filtered Colimit
In category theory, filtered categories generalize the notion of directed set understood as a category (hence called a directed category; while some use directed category as a synonym for a filtered category). There is a dual notion of cofiltered category, which will be recalled below. Filtered categories A category J is filtered when * it is not empty, * for every two objects j and j' in J there exists an object k and two arrows f:j\to k and f':j'\to k in J, * for every two parallel arrows u,v:i\to j in J, there exists an object k and an arrow w:j\to k such that wu=wv. A filtered colimit is a colimit of a functor F:J\to C where J is a filtered category. Cofiltered categories A category J is cofiltered if the opposite category J^ is filtered. In detail, a category is cofiltered when * it is not empty, * for every two objects j and j' in J there exists an object k and two arrows f:k\to j and f':k \to j' in J, * for every two parallel arrows u,v:j\to i in J, there exists an obje ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Creation Of Limits
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the abstract notion of a limit captures the essential properties of universal constructions such as products, pullbacks and inverse limits. The dual notion of a colimit generalizes constructions such as disjoint unions, direct sums, coproducts, pushouts and direct limits. Limits and colimits, like the strongly related notions of universal properties and adjoint functors, exist at a high level of abstraction. In order to understand them, it is helpful to first study the specific examples these concepts are meant to generalize. Definition Limits and colimits in a category C are defined by means of diagrams in C. Formally, a diagram of shape J in C is a functor from J to C: :F:J\to C. The category J is thought of as an index category, and the diagram F is thought of as indexing a collection of objects and morphisms in C patterned on J. One is most often interested in the case where the category J is a small or even finite ca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limits And Colimits
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the abstract notion of a limit captures the essential properties of universal constructions such as products, pullbacks and inverse limits. The dual notion of a colimit generalizes constructions such as disjoint unions, direct sums, coproducts, pushouts and direct limits. Limits and colimits, like the strongly related notions of universal properties and adjoint functors, exist at a high level of abstraction. In order to understand them, it is helpful to first study the specific examples these concepts are meant to generalize. Definition Limits and colimits in a category C are defined by means of diagrams in C. Formally, a diagram of shape J in C is a functor from J to C: :F:J\to C. The category J is thought of as an index category, and the diagram F is thought of as indexing a collection of objects and morphisms in C patterned on J. One is most often interested in the case where the category J is a small or even finite category. A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Category
In mathematics, a complete category is a category in which all small limits exist. That is, a category ''C'' is complete if every diagram ''F'' : ''J'' → ''C'' (where ''J'' is small) has a limit in ''C''. Dually, a cocomplete category is one in which all small colimits exist. A bicomplete category is a category which is both complete and cocomplete. The existence of ''all'' limits (even when ''J'' is a proper class) is too strong to be practically relevant. Any category with this property is necessarily a thin category: for any two objects there can be at most one morphism from one object to the other. A weaker form of completeness is that of finite completeness. A category is finitely complete if all finite limits exists (i.e. limits of diagrams indexed by a finite category ''J''). Dually, a category is finitely cocomplete if all finite colimits exist. Theorems It follows from the existence theorem for limits that a category is complete if and only if it has equalizers (of all ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monoid Ring
In abstract algebra, a monoid ring is a ring constructed from a ring and a monoid, just as a group ring is constructed from a ring and a group. Definition Let ''R'' be a ring and let ''G'' be a monoid. The monoid ring or monoid algebra of ''G'' over ''R'', denoted ''R'' 'G''or ''RG'', is the set of formal sums \sum_ r_g g, where r_g \in R for each g \in G and ''r''''g'' = 0 for all but finitely many ''g'', equipped with coefficientwise addition, and the multiplication in which the elements of ''R'' commute with the elements of ''G''. More formally, ''R'' 'G''is the set of functions such that is finite, equipped with addition of functions, and with multiplication defined by : (\phi \psi)(g) = \sum_ \phi(k) \psi(\ell). If ''G'' is a group, then ''R'' 'G''is also called the group ring of ''G'' over ''R''. Universal property Given ''R'' and ''G'', there is a ring homomorphism sending each ''r'' to ''r''1 (where 1 is the identity element of ''G''), and a monoid homomorphism (wher ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 