Axiom Schema
In mathematical logic, an axiom schema (plural: axiom schemata or axiom schemas) generalizes the notion of axiom. Formal definition An axiom schema is a formula in the metalanguage of an axiomatic system, in which one or more schematic variables appear. These variables, which are metalinguistic constructs, stand for any term or subformula of the system, which may or may not be required to satisfy certain conditions. Often, such conditions require that certain variables be free, or that certain variables not appear in the subformula or term. Finite axiomatization Given that the number of possible subformulas or terms that can be inserted in place of a schematic variable is countably infinite, an axiom schema stands for a countably infinite set of axioms. This set can usually be defined recursively. A theory that can be axiomatized without schemata is said to be finitely axiomatized. Theories that can be finitely axiomatized are seen as a bit more metamathematically elegant, even if ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Logic
Mathematical logic is the study of logic, formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power. However, it can also include uses of logic to characterize correct mathematical reasoning or to establish foundations of mathematics. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to and been motivated by the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and Mathematical analysis, analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's Hilbert's program, program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The nonformalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of '' naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the BuraliForti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the bestknown and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamenta Mathematicae
''Fundamenta Mathematicae'' is a peerreviewed scientific journal of mathematics with a special focus on the foundations of mathematics, concentrating on set theory, mathematical logic, topology and its interactions with algebra, and dynamical systems. Originally it only covered topology, set theory, and foundations of mathematics: it was the first specialized journal in the field of mathematics..... It is published by the Mathematics Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. History The journal was conceived by Zygmunt Janiszewski as a means to foster mathematical research in Poland.According to and to the introduction to the 100th volume of the journal (1978, pp=1–2). These two sources cite an article written by Janiszewski himself in 1918 and titled "''On the needs of Mathematics in Poland''". Janiszewski required that, in order to achieve its goal, the journal should not force Polish mathematicians to submit articles written exclusively in Polish, and should be devoted ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Schema Of Specification
In many popular versions of axiomatic set theory, the axiom schema of specification, also known as the axiom schema of separation, subset axiom scheme or axiom schema of restricted comprehension is an axiom schema. Essentially, it says that any definable subclass of a set is a set. Some mathematicians call it the axiom schema of comprehension, although others use that term for ''unrestricted'' comprehension, discussed below. Because restricting comprehension avoided Russell's paradox, several mathematicians including Zermelo, Fraenkel, and Gödel considered it the most important axiom of set theory. Statement One instance of the schema is included for each formula φ in the language of set theory with free variables among ''x'', ''w''1, ..., ''w''''n'', ''A''. So ''B'' does not occur free in φ. In the formal language of set theory, the axiom schema is: :\forall w_1,\ldots,w_n \, \forall A \, \exists B \, \forall x \, ( x \in B \Leftrightarrow x \in A \land \varphi(x, w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Schema Of Replacement
In set theory, the axiom schema of replacement is a schema of axioms in Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZF) that asserts that the image of any set under any definable mapping is also a set. It is necessary for the construction of certain infinite sets in ZF. The axiom schema is motivated by the idea that whether a class is a set depends only on the cardinality of the class, not on the rank of its elements. Thus, if one class is "small enough" to be a set, and there is a surjection from that class to a second class, the axiom states that the second class is also a set. However, because ZFC only speaks of sets, not proper classes, the schema is stated only for definable surjections, which are identified with their defining formulas. Statement Suppose P is a definable binary relation (which may be a proper class) such that for every set x there is a unique set y such that P(x,y) holds. There is a corresponding definable function F_P, where F_P(x)=y if and only if P(x,y). Consider ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Schema Of Predicative Separation
In axiomatic set theory, the axiom schema of predicative separation, or of restricted, or Δ0 separation, is a schema of axioms which is a restriction of the usual axiom schema of separation in Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. This name Δ0 stems from the Lévy hierarchy, in analogy with the arithmetic hierarchy. Statement The axiom asserts only the existence of a subset of a set if that subset can be defined without reference to the entire universe of sets. The formal statement of this is the same as full separation schema, but with a restriction on the formulas that may be used: For any formula φ, :\forall x \; \exists y \; \forall z \; (z \in y \leftrightarrow z \in x \wedge \phi(z)) provided that φ contains only bounded quantifiers and, as usual, that the variable ''y'' is not free in it. So all quantifiers in φ, if any, must appear in the forms : \exists u \in v \; \psi(u) : \forall u \in v \; \psi(u) for some subformula ψ and, of course, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relation (mathematics)
In mathematics, a relation on a set may, or may not, hold between two given set members. For example, ''"is less than"'' is a relation on the set of natural numbers; it holds e.g. between 1 and 3 (denoted as 1 is an asymmetric relation, but ≥ is not. Again, the previous 3 alternatives are far from being exhaustive; as an example over the natural numbers, the relation defined by is neither symmetric nor antisymmetric, let alone asymmetric. ; : for all , if and then . A transitive relation is irreflexive if and only if it is asymmetric. For example, "is ancestor of" is a transitive relation, while "is parent of" is not. ; : for all , if then or . This property is sometimes called "total", which is distinct from the definitions of "total" given in the section . ; : for all , or . This property is sometimes called "total", which is distinct from the definitions of "total" given in the section . ; : every nonempty subset of contains a minimal element with respect to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Property
Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, redefine, rent, mortgage, pawn, sell, exchange, transfer, give away or destroy it, or to exclude others from doing these things, as well as to perhaps abandon it; whereas regardless of the nature of the property, the owner thereof has the right to properly use it under the granted property rights. In economics and political economy, there are three broad forms of property: private property, public property, and collective property (also called cooperative property). Property that jointly belongs to more than one party may be possessed or controlled thereby in very similar or very distinct ways, whether simply or complexly, whether equally or unequally. However, there is an expectation that each party's will (rather discretion) with rega ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Logic
In logic and mathematics, secondorder logic is an extension of firstorder logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. Secondorder logic is in turn extended by higherorder logic and type theory. Firstorder logic quantifies only variables that range over individuals (elements of the domain of discourse); secondorder logic, in addition, also quantifies over relations. For example, the secondorder sentence \forall P\,\forall x (Px \lor \neg Px) says that for every formula ''P'', and every individual ''x'', either ''Px'' is true or not(''Px'') is true (this is the law of excluded middle). Secondorder logic also includes quantification over sets, functions, and other variables (see section below). Both firstorder and secondorder logic use the idea of a domain of discourse (often called simply the "domain" or the "universe"). The domain is a set over which individual elements may be quantified. Examples Firstorder logic can quantify over individuals, bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

New Foundations
In mathematical logic, New Foundations (NF) is an axiomatic set theory, conceived by Willard Van Orman Quine as a simplification of the theory of types of ''Principia Mathematica''. Quine first proposed NF in a 1937 article titled "New Foundations for Mathematical Logic"; hence the name. Much of this entry discusses NFU, an important variant of NF due to Jensen (1969) and clarified by Holmes (1998). In 1940 and in a revision in 1951, Quine introduced an extension of NF sometimes called "Mathematical Logic" or "ML", that included proper classes as well as sets. New Foundations has a universal set, so it is a nonwellfounded set theory. That is to say, it is an axiomatic set theory that allows infinite descending chains of membership, such as … xn ∈ xn1 ∈ … ∈ x2 ∈ x1. It avoids Russell's paradox by permitting only stratifiable formulas to be defined using the axiom schema of comprehension. For instance, x ∈ y is a stratifiable formula, but x ∈ x is not. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel Set Theory
In the foundations of mathematics, von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory (NBG) is an axiomatic set theory that is a conservative extension of Zermelo–Fraenkel–choice set theory (ZFC). NBG introduces the notion of class, which is a collection of sets defined by a formula whose quantifiers range only over sets. NBG can define classes that are larger than sets, such as the class of all sets and the class of all ordinals. Morse–Kelley set theory (MK) allows classes to be defined by formulas whose quantifiers range over classes. NBG is finitely axiomatizable, while ZFC and MK are not. A key theorem of NBG is the class existence theorem, which states that for every formula whose quantifiers range only over sets, there is a class consisting of the sets satisfying the formula. This class is built by mirroring the stepbystep construction of the formula with classes. Since all settheoretic formulas are constructed from two kinds of atomic formulas (membership and equality) ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Richard Montague
Richard Merritt Montague (September 20, 1930 – March 7, 1971) was an American mathematician and philosopher who made contributions to mathematical logic and the philosophy of language. He is known for proposing Montague grammar to formalize the semantics of natural language. As a student of Alfred Tarski, he also contributed early developments to axiomatic set theory ( ZFC). For the latter half of his life, he was a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles until his early death, believed to be a homicide, at age 40. Career At the University of California, Berkeley, Montague earned a BA in Philosophy in 1950, an MA in Mathematics in 1953, and a PhD in Philosophy in 1957, the latter under the direction of the mathematician and logician Alfred Tarski. Montague spent his entire career teaching in the UCLA Department of Philosophy, where he supervised the dissertations of Nino Cocchiarella and Hans Kamp. Montague wrote on the foundations of logic and set theory, as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 