Axiom Of Infinity
In axiomatic set theory and the branches of mathematics and philosophy that use it, the axiom of infinity is one of the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. It guarantees the existence of at least one infinite set, namely a set containing the natural numbers. It was first published by Ernst Zermelo as part of his set theory in 1908.Zermelo: ''Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Mengenlehre'', 1907, in: Mathematische Annalen 65 (1908), 261281; Axiom des Unendlichen p. 266f. Formal statement In the formal language of the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms, the axiom reads: :\exists \mathbf \, ( \empty \in \mathbf \, \land \, \forall x \in \mathbf \, ( \, ( x \cup \ ) \in \mathbf ) ) . In words, there is a set I (the set which is postulated to be infinite), such that the empty set is in I, and such that whenever any ''x'' is a member of I, the set formed by taking the union of ''x'' with its singleton is also a member of I. Such a set is sometimes called an inductive set. I ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiomatic Set Theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The nonformalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of ''naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the BuraliForti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the bestknown and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational system f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Closure (mathematics)
In mathematics, a subset of a given set is closed under an operation of the larger set if performing that operation on members of the subset always produces a member of that subset. For example, the natural numbers are closed under addition, but not under subtraction: is not a natural number, although both 1 and 2 are. Similarly, a subset is said to be closed under a ''collection'' of operations if it is closed under each of the operations individually. The closure of a subset is the result of a closure operator applied to the subset. The ''closure'' of a subset under some operations is the smallest subset that is closed under these operations. It is often called the ''span'' (for example linear span) or the ''generated set''. Definitions Let be a set equipped with one or several methods for producing elements of from other elements of . Operations and ( partial) multivariate function are examples of such methods. If is a topological space, the limit of a sequence of ele ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equality (mathematics)
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object. The equality between and is written , and pronounced equals . The symbol "" is called an "equals sign". Two objects that are not equal are said to be distinct. For example: * x=y means that and denote the same object. * The identity (x+1)^2=x^2+2x+1 means that if is any number, then the two expressions have the same value. This may also be interpreted as saying that the two sides of the equals sign represent the same function. * \ = \ if and only if P(x) \Leftrightarrow Q(x). This assertion, which uses setbuilder notation, means that if the elements satisfying the property P(x) are the same as the elements satisfying Q(x), then the two uses of the setbuilder notation define the same set. This property is often expressed as "two sets that have t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Function
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation, identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the value that was used as its argument, unchanged. That is, when is the identity function, the equality is true for all values of to which can be applied. Definition Formally, if is a set, the identity function on is defined to be a function with as its domain and codomain, satisfying In other words, the function value in the codomain is always the same as the input element in the domain . The identity function on is clearly an injective function as well as a surjective function, so it is bijective. The identity function on is often denoted by . In set theory, where a function is defined as a particular kind of binary relation, the identity function is given by the identity relation, or ''diagonal'' of . Algebraic properties If is any function, then we have ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a univ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Logic
In logic and mathematics, secondorder logic is an extension of firstorder logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. Secondorder logic is in turn extended by higherorder logic and type theory. Firstorder logic quantifies only variables that range over individuals (elements of the domain of discourse); secondorder logic, in addition, also quantifies over relations. For example, the secondorder sentence \forall P\,\forall x (Px \lor \neg Px) says that for every formula ''P'', and every individual ''x'', either ''Px'' is true or not(''Px'') is true (this is the law of excluded middle). Secondorder logic also includes quantification over sets, functions, and other variables (see section below). Both firstorder and secondorder logic use the idea of a domain of discourse (often called simply the "domain" or the "universe"). The domain is a set over which individual elements may be quantified. Examples Firstorder logic can quantify over individuals, bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Set
In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of a set is the set of all subsets of , including the empty set and itself. In axiomatic set theory (as developed, for example, in the ZFC axioms), the existence of the power set of any set is postulated by the axiom of power set. The powerset of is variously denoted as , , , \mathbb(S), or . The notation , meaning the set of all functions from S to a given set of two elements (e.g., ), is used because the powerset of can be identified with, equivalent to, or bijective to the set of all the functions from to the given two elements set. Any subset of is called a ''family of sets'' over . Example If is the set , then all the subsets of are * (also denoted \varnothing or \empty, the empty set or the null set) * * * * * * * and hence the power set of is . Properties If is a finite set with the cardinality (i.e., the number of all elements in the set is ), then the number of all the subsets of is . This fact as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Power Set
In mathematics, the axiom of power set is one of the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms of axiomatic set theory. In the formal language of the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms, the axiom reads: :\forall x \, \exists y \, \forall z \, \in y \iff \forall w \, (w \in z \Rightarrow w \in x)/math> where ''y'' is the Power set of ''x'', \mathcal(x). In English, this says: :Given any set ''x'', there is a set \mathcal(x) such that, given any set ''z'', this set ''z'' is a member of \mathcal(x) if and only if every element of ''z'' is also an element of ''x''. More succinctly: ''for every set x, there is a set \mathcal(x) consisting precisely of the subsets of x.'' Note the subset relation \subseteq is not used in the formal definition as subset is not a primitive relation in formal set theory; rather, subset is defined in terms of set membership, \in. By the axiom of extensionality, the set \mathcal(x) is unique. The axiom of power set appears in most axiomatizations of set theory. It is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Arithmetic
In mathematical logic, secondorder arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. A precursor to secondorder arithmetic that involves thirdorder parameters was introduced by David Hilbert and Paul Bernays in their book ''Grundlagen der Mathematik''. The standard axiomatization of secondorder arithmetic is denoted by Z2. Secondorder arithmetic includes, but is significantly stronger than, its firstorder counterpart Peano arithmetic. Unlike Peano arithmetic, secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over sets of natural numbers as well as numbers themselves. Because real numbers can be represented as (infinite) sets of natural numbers in wellknown ways, and because secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over such sets, it is possible to formalize the real numbers in secondorder arithmetic. For this reason, seco ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Induction
Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ... all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Schema Of Specification
In many popular versions of axiomatic set theory, the axiom schema of specification, also known as the axiom schema of separation, subset axiom scheme or axiom schema of restricted comprehension is an axiom schema. Essentially, it says that any definable subclass of a set is a set. Some mathematicians call it the axiom schema of comprehension, although others use that term for ''unrestricted'' comprehension, discussed below. Because restricting comprehension avoided Russell's paradox, several mathematicians including Zermelo, Fraenkel, and Gödel considered it the most important axiom of set theory. Statement One instance of the schema is included for each formula φ in the language of set theory with free variables among ''x'', ''w''1, ..., ''w''''n'', ''A''. So ''B'' does not occur free in φ. In the formal language of set theory, the axiom schema is: :\forall w_1,\ldots,w_n \, \forall A \, \exists B \, \forall x \, ( x \in B \Leftrightarrow x \in A \land \varphi(x, w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Epsiloninduction
In set theory, \ininduction, also called epsiloninduction or setinduction, is a principle that can be used to prove that all sets satisfy a given property. Considered as an axiomatic principle, it is called the axiom schema of set induction. The principle implies transfinite induction and recursion. It may also be studied in a general context of induction on wellfounded relations. Statement The schema is for any given property \psi of sets and states that, if for every set x, the truth of \psi(x) follows from the truth of \psi for all elements of x, then this property \psi holds for all sets. In symbols: :\forall x. \Big(\big(\forall (y \in x). \psi(y)\big)\,\to\,\psi(x)\Big)\,\to\,\forall z. \psi(z) Note that for the "bottom case" where x denotes the empty set \, the subexpression \forall(y\in x).\psi(y) is vacuously true for all propositions and so that implication is proven by just proving \psi(\). In words, if a property is persistent when collecting any sets with t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 