Array Element
In computer science, an array is a data structure consisting of a collection of ''elements'' (values or variables), each identified by at least one ''array index'' or ''key''. An array is stored such that the position of each element can be computed from its index tuple by a mathematical formula. The simplest type of data structure is a linear array, also called onedimensional array. For example, an array of ten 32bit (4byte) integer variables, with indices 0 through 9, may be stored as ten words at memory addresses 2000, 2004, 2008, ..., 2036, (in hexadecimal: 0x7D0, 0x7D4, 0x7D8, ..., 0x7F4) so that the element with index ''i'' has the address 2000 + (''i'' × 4). The memory address of the first element of an array is called first address, foundation address, or base address. Because the mathematical concept of a matrix can be represented as a twodimensional grid, twodimensional arrays are also sometimes called "matrices". In some cases the term "vector" is used in comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Data Type
In computer science, an abstract data type (ADT) is a mathematical model for data types. An abstract data type is defined by its behavior (Semantics (computer science), semantics) from the point of view of a ''User (computing), user'', of the data, specifically in terms of possible values, possible operations on data of this type, and the behavior of these operations. This mathematical model contrasts with data structures, which are concrete representations of data, and are the point of view of an implementer, not a user. Formally, an ADT may be defined as a "class of objects whose logical behavior is defined by a set of values and a set of operations"; this is analogous to an algebraic structure in mathematics. What is meant by "behaviour" varies by author, with the two main types of formal specifications for behavior being ''axiomatic (algebraic) specification'' and an ''abstract model;'' these correspond to axiomatic semantics and operational semantics of an abstract machine, r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

External Storage
In computing, external storage refers to nonvolatile (secondary) data storage outside a computer's own internal hardware, and thus can be readily disconnected and accessed elsewhere. Such storage devices may refer to removable media (e.g. punched paper, magnetic tape, floppy disk and optical disc), flash memorybased portable storage devices (e.g. memory card, USB flash drive and external solid state drive), enclosured hard disk drive, or networkattached storage. Webbased cloud storage is the latest technology for external storage. History Today the term external storage most commonly applies to those storage devices external to a personal computer. The terms refer to any storage external to the computer. Storage as distinct from memory in the early days of computing was always external to the computer as for example in the punched card devices and media. Today storage devices may be internal or external to a computer system. In the 1950s, introduction of magnetic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Theoretical Computer Science
Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on mathematical aspects of computer science such as the theory of computation, lambda calculus, and type theory. It is difficult to circumscribe the theoretical areas precisely. The Association for Computing Machinery, ACM's ACM SIGACT, Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory (SIGACT) provides the following description: History While logical inference and mathematical proof had existed previously, in 1931 Kurt Gödel proved with his incompleteness theorem that there are fundamental limitations on what statements could be proved or disproved. Information theory was added to the field with a 1948 mathematical theory of communication by Claude Shannon. In the same decade, Donald Hebb introduced a mathematical model of Hebbian learning, learning in the brain. With mounting biological data supporting this hypothesis with some modification, the fields of n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associative Array
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type that stores a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection. In mathematical terms an associative array is a function with ''finite'' domain. It supports 'lookup', 'remove', and 'insert' operations. The dictionary problem is the classic problem of designing efficient data structures that implement associative arrays. The two major solutions to the dictionary problem are hash tables and search trees..Dietzfelbinger, M., Karlin, A., Mehlhorn, K., Meyer auf der Heide, F., Rohnert, H., and Tarjan, R. E. 1994"Dynamic Perfect Hashing: Upper and Lower Bounds". SIAM J. Comput. 23, 4 (Aug. 1994), 738761. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=182370 In some cases it is also possible to solve the problem using directly addressed arrays, binary search trees, or other more specialized structures. Many programming languages include ass ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm () is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific Computational problem, problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can perform automated deductions (referred to as automated reasoning) and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking). Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus". In contrast, a Heuristic (computer science), heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. As an effective method, an algorithm ca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Search Tree
In computer science, a search tree is a tree data structure used for locating specific keys from within a set. In order for a tree to function as a search tree, the key for each node must be greater than any keys in subtrees on the left, and less than any keys in subtrees on the right. The advantage of search trees is their efficient search time given the tree is reasonably balanced, which is to say the leaves at either end are of comparable depths. Various searchtree data structures exist, several of which also allow efficient insertion and deletion of elements, which operations then have to maintain tree balance. Search trees are often used to implement an associative array. The search tree algorithm uses the key from the key–value pair to find a location, and then the application stores the entire key–value pair at that particular location. Types of Trees Binary search tree A Binary Search Tree is a nodebased data structure where each node contains a key and two sub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linked List
In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory. Instead, each element points to the next. It is a data structure consisting of a collection of nodes which together represent a sequence. In its most basic form, each node contains: data, and a reference (in other words, a ''link'') to the next node in the sequence. This structure allows for efficient insertion or removal of elements from any position in the sequence during iteration. More complex variants add additional links, allowing more efficient insertion or removal of nodes at arbitrary positions. A drawback of linked lists is that access time is linear (and difficult to pipeline). Faster access, such as random access, is not feasible. Arrays have better cache locality compared to linked lists. Linked lists are among the simplest and most common data structures. They can be used to implement several other common abstract data types, in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hash Table
In computing, a hash table, also known as hash map, is a data structure that implements an associative array or dictionary. It is an abstract data type that maps keys to values. A hash table uses a hash function to compute an ''index'', also called a ''hash code'', into an array of ''buckets'' or ''slots'', from which the desired value can be found. During lookup, the key is hashed and the resulting hash indicates where the corresponding value is stored. Ideally, the hash function will assign each key to a unique bucket, but most hash table designs employ an imperfect hash function, which might cause hash ''collisions'' where the hash function generates the same index for more than one key. Such collisions are typically accommodated in some way. In a welldimensioned hash table, the average time complexity for each lookup is independent of the number of elements stored in the table. Many hash table designs also allow arbitrary insertions and deletions of key–value pairs, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Highlevel Programming Language
In computer science, a highlevel programming language is a programming language with strong Abstraction (computer science), abstraction from the details of the computer. In contrast to lowlevel programming languages, it may use natural language ''elements'', be easier to use, or may automate (or even hide entirely) significant areas of computing systems (e.g. memory management), making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable than when using a lowerlevel language. The amount of abstraction provided defines how "highlevel" a programming language is. In the 1960s, a highlevel programming language using a compiler was commonly called an ''autocode''. Examples of autocodes are COBOL and Fortran. The first highlevel programming language designed for computers was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse. However, it was not implemented in his time, and his original contributions were largely isolated from other developments due to World War II, aside from th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Data Type
In computer science and computer programming, a data type (or simply type) is a set of possible values and a set of allowed operations on it. A data type tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data. Most programming languages support basic data types of integer numbers (of varying sizes), floatingpoint numbers (which approximate real numbers), characters and Booleans. A data type constrains the possible values that an expression, such as a variable or a function, might take. This data type defines the operations that can be done on the data, the meaning of the data, and the way values of that type can be stored. Concept A data type is a collection or grouping of data values. Such a grouping may be defined for many reasons: similarity, convenience, or to focus the attention. It is frequently a matter of good organization that aids the understanding of complex definitions. Almost all programming languages explicitly include the notion of data ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Array Data Type
In computer science, array is a data type that represents a collection of ''elements'' (value (computer science), values or variable (computer science), variables), each selected by one or more indices (identifying keys) that can be computed at Run time (program lifecycle phase), run time during program execution. Such a collection is usually called an array variable or array value.Robert W. Sebesta (2001) ''Concepts of Programming Languages''. AddisonWesley. 4th edition (1998), 5th edition (2001), By analogy with the mathematical concepts vector (mathematics), vector and matrix (mathematics), matrix, array types with one and two indices are often called vector type and matrix type, respectively. More generally, a multidimensional array type can be called a tensor type, by anology with the physical concept, tensor. Language support for array types may include certain builtin type, builtin array data types, some syntactic constructions (''array type constructors'') that the p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statement (programming)
In computer programming, a statement is a Syntax (programming languages), syntactic unit of an Imperative programming, imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out. A Computer program, program written in such a language is formed by a sequence of one or more statements. A statement may have internal components (e.g., Expression (computer science), expressions). Many programming languages (e.g. Ada (programming language), Ada, Algol 60, C (programming language), C, Java (programming language), Java, Pascal (programming language), Pascal) make a distinction between statements and Declaration (computer programming), definitions/declarations. A definition or declaration specifies the data on which a program is to operate, while a statement specifies the actions to be taken with that data. Statements which cannot contain other statements are ''simple''; those which can contain other statements are ''compound''.Revised ALGOL 60 report section. 4.1. The ap ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 