Amortized Analysis
In computer science, amortized analysis is a method for analyzing a given algorithm's complexity, or how much of a resource, especially time or memory, it takes to execute. The motivation for amortized analysis is that looking at the worstcase run time can be too pessimistic. Instead, amortized analysis averages the running times of operations in a sequence over that sequence. As a conclusion: "Amortized analysis is a useful tool that complements other techniques such as worstcase and averagecase analysis." For a given operation of an algorithm, certain situations (e.g., input parametrizations or data structure contents) may imply a significant cost in resources, whereas other situations may not be as costly. The amortized analysis considers both the costly and less costly operations together over the whole sequence of operations. This may include accounting for different types of input, length of the input, and other factors that affect its performance. History Amortiz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Computer Science
Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software). Computer science is generally considered an area of academic research and distinct from computer programming. Algorithms and data structures are central to computer science. The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them. The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities. Computer graphics and computational geometry address the generation of images. Programming language theory considers different ways to describe computational processes, and database theory concerns the management of repositories of dat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Cornell University
Cornell University is a private statutory landgrant research university based in Ithaca, New York. It is a member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, Cornell was founded with the intention to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study." Cornell is ranked among the top global universities. The university is organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers three satellite campuses, two in New York City and one in Education Cit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Allan Borodin
Allan Bertram Borodin (born 1941) is a CanadianAmerican computer scientist who is a professor at the University of Toronto.Borodin named University Professor , U. Toronto Computer Science, retrieved 20120317.Past prizes and awards PIMS, retrieved 20120317. Biography Borodin did his undergraduate studies at , earning a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1963. After earning a master's degree at the[...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of its predecessors was established in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools; it became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting fouryear degrees in the same year. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, founded in 1913 by Andrew Mellon and Richard B. Mellon and formerly a part of the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon University has operated as a single institution since the merger. The university consists of seven colleges and independent schools: The College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, and the School of Computer Science. The university has its main campus located 5 miles (8 km) f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Online Algorithm
In computer science, an online algorithm is one that can process its input piecebypiece in a serial fashion, i.e., in the order that the input is fed to the algorithm, without having the entire input available from the start. In contrast, an offline algorithm is given the whole problem data from the beginning and is required to output an answer which solves the problem at hand. In operations research, the area in which online algorithms are developed is called online optimization. As an example, consider the sorting algorithms selection sort and insertion sort: selection sort repeatedly selects the minimum element from the unsorted remainder and places it at the front, which requires access to the entire input; it is thus an offline algorithm. On the other hand, insertion sort considers one input element per iteration and produces a partial solution without considering future elements. Thus insertion sort is an online algorithm. Note that the final result of an insertion sor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

FIFO (computing And Electronics)
Representation of a FIFO queue In computing and in systems theory, FIFO is an acronym for first in, first out (the first in is the first out), a method for organizing the manipulation of a data structure (often, specifically a data buffer) where the oldest (first) entry, or "head" of the queue, is processed first. Such processing is analogous to servicing people in a queue area on a firstcome, firstserved (FCFS) basis, i.e. in the same sequence in which they arrive at the queue's tail. FCFS is also the jargon term for the FIFO operating system scheduling algorithm, which gives every process central processing unit (CPU) time in the order in which it is demanded. FIFO's opposite is LIFO, lastinfirstout, where the youngest entry or "top of the stack" is processed first. A priority queue is neither FIFO or LIFO but may adopt similar behaviour temporarily or by default. Queueing theory encompasses these methods for processing data structures, as well as interactions betwee ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Queue (abstract Data Type)
In computer science, a queue is a collection of entities that are maintained in a sequence and can be modified by the addition of entities at one end of the sequence and the removal of entities from the other end of the sequence. By convention, the end of the sequence at which elements are added is called the back, tail, or rear of the queue, and the end at which elements are removed is called the head or front of the queue, analogously to the words used when people line up to wait for goods or services. The operation of adding an element to the rear of the queue is known as ''enqueue'', and the operation of removing an element from the front is known as ''dequeue''. Other operations may also be allowed, often including a '' peek'' or ''front'' operation that returns the value of the next element to be dequeued without dequeuing it. The operations of a queue make it a firstinfirstout (FIFO) data structure. In a FIFO data structure, the first element added to the queue will ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Big O Notation
Big ''O'' notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. Big O is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmann–Landau notation or asymptotic notation. The letter O was chosen by Bachmann to stand for '' Ordnung'', meaning the order of approximation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms according to how their run time or space requirements grow as the input size grows. In analytic number theory, big O notation is often used to express a bound on the difference between an arithmetical function and a better understood approximation; a famous example of such a difference is the remainder term in the prime number theorem. Big O notation is also used in many other fields to provide similar estimates. Big O notation characterizes functions according to their growth rates: d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Constant Time
In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of computer time it takes to run an algorithm. Time complexity is commonly estimated by counting the number of elementary operations performed by the algorithm, supposing that each elementary operation takes a fixed amount of time to perform. Thus, the amount of time taken and the number of elementary operations performed by the algorithm are taken to be related by a constant factor. Since an algorithm's running time may vary among different inputs of the same size, one commonly considers the worstcase time complexity, which is the maximum amount of time required for inputs of a given size. Less common, and usually specified explicitly, is the averagecase complexity, which is the average of the time taken on inputs of a given size (this makes sense because there are only a finite number of possible inputs of a given size). In both cases, the time complexity is generally express ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Dynamic Array
In computer science, a dynamic array, growable array, resizable array, dynamic table, mutable array, or array list is a random access, variablesize list data structure that allows elements to be added or removed. It is supplied with standard libraries in many modern mainstream programming languages. Dynamic arrays overcome a limit of static arrays, which have a fixed capacity that needs to be specified at allocation. A dynamic array is not the same thing as a dynamically allocated array or variablelength array, either of which is an array whose size is fixed when the array is allocated, although a dynamic array may use such a fixedsize array as a back end.See, for example, thsource code of java.util.ArrayList class from OpenJDK 6 Boundedsize dynamic arrays and capacity A simple dynamic array can be constructed by allocating an array of fixedsize, typically larger than the number of elements immediately required. The elements of the dynamic array are stored contiguous ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Potential Method
In computational complexity theory, the potential method is a method used to analyze the amortized time and space complexity of a data structure, a measure of its performance over sequences of operations that smooths out the cost of infrequent but expensive operations.. Definition of amortized time In the potential method, a function Φ is chosen that maps states of the data structure to nonnegative numbers. If ''S'' is a state of the data structure, Φ(''S'') represents work that has been accounted for ("paid for") in the amortized analysis but not yet performed. Thus, Φ(''S'') may be thought of as calculating the amount of potential energy stored in that state. The potential value prior to the operation of initializing a data structure is defined to be zero. Alternatively, Φ(''S'') may be thought of as representing the amount of disorder in state ''S'' or its distance from an ideal state. Let ''o'' be any individual operation within a sequence of operations on some data struc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 