Allpass Filter
An allpass filter is a signal processing filter that passes all frequencies equally in gain, but changes the phase relationship among various frequencies. Most types of filter reduce the amplitude (i.e. the magnitude) of the signal applied to it for some values of frequency, whereas the allpass filter allows all frequencies through without changes in level. Common applications A common application in electronic music production is in the design of an effects unit known as a " phaser", where a number of allpass filters are connected in sequence and the output mixed with the raw signal. It does this by varying its phase shift as a function of frequency. Generally, the filter is described by the frequency at which the phase shift crosses 90° (i.e., when the input and output signals go into quadrature – when there is a quarter wavelength of delay between them). They are generally used to compensate for other undesired phase shifts that arise in the system, or for mi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Filter (signal Processing)
In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal. Most often, this means removing some frequencies or frequency bands. However, filters do not exclusively act in the frequency domain; especially in the field of image processing many other targets for filtering exist. Correlations can be removed for certain frequency components and not for others without having to act in the frequency domain. Filters are widely used in electronics and telecommunication, in radio, television, audio recording, radar, control systems, music synthesis, image processing, and computer graphics. There are many different bases of classifying filters and these overlap in many different ways; there is no simple hierarchical classification. Filters may be: *nonlinear or linear *timevariant or t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pole (complex Analysis)
In complex analysis (a branch of mathematics), a pole is a certain type of singularity of a complexvalued function of a complex variable. In some sense, it is the simplest type of singularity. Technically, a point is a pole of a function if it is a zero of the function and is holomorphic in some neighbourhood of (that is, complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of ). A function is meromorphic in an open set if for every point of there is a neighborhood of in which either or is holomorphic. If is meromorphic in , then a zero of is a pole of , and a pole of is a zero of . This induces a duality between ''zeros'' and ''poles'', that is fundamental for the study of meromorphic functions. For example, if a function is meromorphic on the whole complex plane plus the point at infinity, then the sum of the multiplicities of its poles equals the sum of the multiplicities of its zeros. Definitions A function of a complex variable is holomorphic in an open domai ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

DC Offset
In signal processing, when describing a periodic function in the time domain, the DC bias, DC component, DC offset, or DC coefficient is the mean amplitude of the waveform. If the mean amplitude is zero, there is no DC bias. A waveform with no DC bias is known as a ''DC balanced'' or ''DC free'' waveform. Origin The term originates in electronics, where ''DC'' refers to a direct current voltage. In contrast, various other nonDC frequencies are analogous to superimposed alternating current (AC) voltages or currents, hence called ''AC components'' or ''AC coefficients''. Applications In the design of electronic amplifier circuits, every active device has biasing to set its ''operating point'', the steady state current and voltage on the device when no signal is applied. In bipolar transistor biasing, for example, a network of resistors is used to apply a small amount of DC to the base terminal of the transistor. The AC signal is applied at the same terminal and is amplified. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Operational Amplifier Applications
This article illustrates some typical operational amplifier applications. A nonideal operational amplifier's equivalent circuit has a finite input impedance, a nonzero output impedance, and a finite gain. A real opamp has a number of nonideal features as shown in the diagram, but here a simplified schematic notation is used, many details such as device selection and power supply connections are not shown. Operational amplifiers are optimised for use with negative feedback, and this article discusses only negativefeedback applications. When positive feedback is required, a comparator is usually more appropriate. See Comparator applications for further information. Practical considerations Operational amplifiers parameter requirements In order for a particular device to be used in an application, it must satisfy certain requirements. The operational amplifier must * have large openloop signal gain (voltage gain of 200,000 is obtained in early integrated circuit exemplars), ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Short Circuit
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or very low electrical impedance. This results in an excessive current flowing through the circuit. The opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. Definition A short circuit is an abnormal connection between two nodes of an electric circuit intended to be at different voltages. This results in an electric current limited only by the Thévenin equivalent resistance of the rest of the network which can cause circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion. Although usually the result of a fault, there are cases where short circuits are caused intentionally, for example, for the purpose of voltagesensing crowbar circuit protectors. In circuit analysis, a ''short circuit'' is defined as a connection between two nodes that forces them to be at the same voltage. In an 'ideal' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capacitor
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by virtue of accumulating electric charges on two close surfaces insulated from each other. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as the condenser, a term still encountered in a few compound names, such as the ''condenser microphone''. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frequency
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also occasionally referred to as ''temporal frequency'' for clarity, and is distinct from ''angular frequency''. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) which is equal to one event per second. The period is the interval of time between events, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute (2 hertz), the period, —the interval at which the beats repeat—is half a second (60 seconds divided by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light. Definitions and units For cyclical phenomena such as oscillations, waves, or for examples of simple harmonic motion, the term ''frequency'' is defined as the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Negative Feedback
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function (Mathematics), function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is feedback, fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. Whereas positive feedback tends to lead to instability via exponential growth, oscillation or chaos theory, chaotic behavior, negative feedback generally promotes stability. Negative feedback tends to promote a settling to List of types of equilibrium, equilibrium, and reduces the effects of perturbations. Negative feedback loops in which just the right amount of correction is applied with optimum timing can be very stable, accurate, and responsive. Negative feedback is widely used in mechanical and electronic engineering, and also within living organisms, and can be seen in many other fields from chemistry and economics to physical systems such as the climate. General negative feedback ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Operational Amplifier
An operational amplifier (often op amp or opamp) is a DCcoupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a singleended output. In this configuration, an op amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically 100,000 times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. The operational amplifier traces its origin and name to analog computers, where they were used to perform mathematical operations in linear, nonlinear, and frequencydependent circuits. The popularity of the op amp as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. By using negative feedback, the characteristics of an opamp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth etc. are determined by external components and have little dependence on temperature coefficients or engineering tolerance in the op amp itself. Op amps are used widely in electronic devices today, including a vast array of consumer, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gain (electronics)
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a twoport electrical network, circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the Electric power, power or amplitude of a Signal (electrical engineering), signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal. It is usually defined as the mean ratio of the Signalling (telecommunication), signal amplitude or power at the output port (circuit theory), port to the amplitude or power at the input port. It is often expressed using the logarithmic decibel (dB) units ("dB gain"). A gain greater than one (greater than zero dB), that is amplification, is the defining property of an active component or circuit, while a passive circuit will have a gain of less than one. The term ''gain'' alone is ambiguous, and can refer to the ratio of output to input voltage (''voltage gain''), Electric current, current (''current gain'') or electric power (''power gain''). In the field of audio and general ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unity (mathematics)
1 (one, unit, unity) is a number representing a single or the only entity. 1 is also a numerical digit and represents a single unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of ''unit length'' is a line segment of length 1. In conventions of sign where zero is considered neither positive nor negative, 1 is the first and smallest positive integer. It is also sometimes considered the first of the infinite sequence of natural numbers, followed by 2, although by other definitions 1 is the second natural number, following 0. The fundamental mathematical property of 1 is to be a multiplicative identity, meaning that any number multiplied by 1 equals the same number. Most if not all properties of 1 can be deduced from this. In advanced mathematics, a multiplicative identity is often denoted 1, even if it is not a number. 1 is by convention not considered a prime number; this was not universally accepted until the mid20th century. Additionally, 1 is the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Angular Frequency
In physics, angular frequency "''ω''" (also referred to by the terms angular speed, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate. It refers to the angular displacement per unit time (for example, in rotation) or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (for example, in oscillations and waves), or as the rate of change of the argument of the sine function. Angular frequency (or angular speed) is the magnitude of the pseudovector quantity angular velocity.(UP1) One turn is equal to 2''π'' radians, hence \omega = \frac = , where: *''ω'' is the angular frequency (unit: radians per second), *''T'' is the period (unit: seconds), *''f'' is the ordinary frequency (unit: hertz) (sometimes ''ν''). Units In SI units, angular frequency is normally presented in radians per second, even when it does not express a rotational value. The unit hertz (Hz) is dimensionally equivalent, but by convention it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 