Absolutely Continuous
In calculus, absolute continuity is a smoothness property of functions that is stronger than continuity and uniform continuity. The notion of absolute continuity allows one to obtain generalizations of the relationship between the two central operations of calculus— differentiation and integration. This relationship is commonly characterized (by the fundamental theorem of calculus) in the framework of Riemann integration, but with absolute continuity it may be formulated in terms of Lebesgue integration. For realvalued functions on the real line, two interrelated notions appear: absolute continuity of functions and absolute continuity of measures. These two notions are generalized in different directions. The usual derivative of a function is related to the '' Radon–Nikodym derivative'', or ''density'', of a measure. We have the following chains of inclusions for functions over a compact subset of the real line: : ''absolutely continuous'' ⊆ ''uniformly continuous'' = ''cont ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous Rate of change (mathematics), rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence (mathematics), convergence of infinite sequences and Series (mathematics), infinite series to a welldefined limit (mathematics), limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including (ε, δ)definition of limit, codify ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lipschitz Continuous
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixedpoint theorem. We have the following chain of strict inclus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hölder Condition
In mathematics, a real or complexvalued function ''f'' on ''d''dimensional Euclidean space satisfies a Hölder condition, or is Hölder continuous, when there are nonnegative real constants ''C'', α > 0, such that : , f(x)  f(y) , \leq C\, x  y\, ^ for all ''x'' and ''y'' in the domain of ''f''. More generally, the condition can be formulated for functions between any two metric spaces. The number α is called the ''exponent'' of the Hölder condition. A function on an interval satisfying the condition with α > 1 is constant. If α = 1, then the function satisfies a Lipschitz condition. For any α > 0, the condition implies the function is uniformly continuous. The condition is named after Otto Hölder. We have the following chain of strict inclusions for functions over a closed and bounded nontrivial interval of the real line: : Continuously differentiable ⊂ Lipschitz continuous ⊂ αHölder continuous ⊂ uniformly continuous ⊂ continuous, where ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Measure
In measure theory, a branch of mathematics, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. For ''n'' = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called ''n''dimensional volume, ''n''volume, or simply volume. It is used throughout real analysis, in particular to define Lebesgue integration. Sets that can be assigned a Lebesgue measure are called Lebesguemeasurable; the measure of the Lebesguemeasurable set ''A'' is here denoted by ''λ''(''A''). Henri Lebesgue described this measure in the year 1901, followed the next year by his description of the Lebesgue integral. Both were published as part of his dissertation in 1902. Definition For any interval I = ,b/math>, or I = (a, b), in the set \mathbb of real numbers, let \ell(I)= b  a denote its length. For any subset E\subseteq\mathbb, the Lebesgue oute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Luzin N Property
In mathematics, a function ''f'' on the interval 'a'', ''b''has the Luzin N property, named after Nikolai Luzin (also called Luzin property or N property) if for all N\subset ,b/math> such that \lambda(N)=0, there holds: \lambda(f(N))=0, where \lambda stands for the Lebesgue measure. Note that the image of such a set ''N'' is not necessarily measurable, but since the Lebesgue measure is complete, it follows that if the Lebesgue outer measure of that set is zero, then it is measurable and its Lebesgue measure is zero as well. Properties Any differentiable function has the Luzin N property. Lemma 7.25 implies this This extends to functions that are differentiable on a 

Lipschitz Continuity
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixedpoint theorem. We have the following chain of strict inclus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relation Between The Two Notions Of Absolute Continuity
Relation or relations may refer to: General uses *International relations, the study of interconnection of politics, economics, and law on a global level *Interpersonal relationship, association or acquaintance between two or more people *Public relations, managing the spread of information to the public *Sexual relations, or human sexual activity *Social relation, in social science, any social interaction between two or more individuals Logic and philosophy *Relation (philosophy), links between properties of an object *Relational theory, framework to understand reality or a physical system Mathematics A finitary or ''n''ary relation is a set of ''n''tuples. Specific types of relations include: *Relation (mathematics) *Binary relation (or correspondence, dyadic relation, or 2place relation) *Equivalence relation *Homogeneous relation *Reflexive relation *Serial relation *Ternary relation (or triadic, 3adic, 3ary, 3dimensional, or 3place relation) Relation may also ref ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue
Henri Léon Lebesgue (; June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician known for his theory of integration, which was a generalization of the 17thcentury concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis. His theory was published originally in his dissertation ''Intégrale, longueur, aire'' ("Integral, length, area") at the University of Nancy during 1902. Personal life Henri Lebesgue was born on 28 June 1875 in Beauvais, Oise. Lebesgue's father was a typesetter and his mother was a school teacher. His parents assembled at home a library that the young Henri was able to use. His father died of tuberculosis when Lebesgue was still very young and his mother had to support him by herself. As he showed a remarkable talent for mathematics in primary school, one of his instructors arranged for community support to continue his education at the Collège de Beauvais and then at Lycée SaintLouis and Lycée Louis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pairwise Disjoint
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set.. For example, and are ''disjoint sets,'' while and are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. Generalizations This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to a family of sets \left(A_i\right)_: the family is pairwise disjoint, or mutually disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever i \neq j. Alternatively, some authors use the term disjoint to refer to this notion as well. For families the notion of pairwise disjoint or mutually disjoint is sometimes defined in a subtly different manner, in that repeated identical members are allowed: the family is pairwise disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever A_i \neq A_j (every two ''distinct'' sets in the family are disjoint).. For example, the collection of sets is d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Interval (mathematics)
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cantor Function
In mathematics, the Cantor function is an example of a function that is continuous, but not absolutely continuous. It is a notorious counterexample in analysis, because it challenges naive intuitions about continuity, derivative, and measure. Though it is continuous everywhere and has zero derivative almost everywhere, its value still goes from 0 to 1 as its argument reaches from 0 to 1. Thus, in one sense the function seems very much like a constant one which cannot grow, and in another, it does indeed monotonically grow. It is also called the Cantor ternary function, the Lebesgue function, Lebesgue's singular function, the Cantor–Vitali function, the Devil's staircase, the Cantor staircase function, and the Cantor–Lebesgue function. introduced the Cantor function and mentioned that Scheeffer pointed out that it was a counterexample to an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus claimed by Harnack. The Cantor function was discussed and popularized by , and . Defin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weierstrass Function
In mathematics, the Weierstrass function is an example of a realvalued function (mathematics), function that is continuous function, continuous everywhere but Differentiable function, differentiable nowhere. It is an example of a fractal curve. It is named after its discoverer Karl Weierstrass. The Weierstrass function has historically served the role of a pathological (mathematics), pathological function, being the first published example (1872) specifically concocted to challenge the notion that every continuous function is differentiable except on a set of isolated points. Weierstrass's demonstration that continuity did not imply almosteverywhere differentiability upended mathematics, overturning several proofs that relied on geometric intuition and vague definitions of smoothness. These types of functions were denounced by contemporaries: Henri Poincaré famously described them as "monsters" and called Weierstrass' work "an outrage against common sense", while Charles Herm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 