Absolute Value
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the nonnegative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive number, and , x, =x if x is negative (in which case negating x makes x positive), and For example, the absolute value of 3 and the absolute value of −3 is The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, an absolute value is also defined for the complex numbers, the quaternions, ordered rings, fields and vector spaces. The absolute value is closely related to the notions of magnitude, distance, and norm in various mathematical and physical contexts. Terminology and notation In 1806, JeanRobert Argand introduced the term ''module'', meaning ''unit of measure'' in French, specifically for the ''complex'' absolute value,Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, June 2008 an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Absolute Value
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the nonnegative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive number, and , x, =x if x is negative (in which case negating x makes x positive), and For example, the absolute value of 3 and the absolute value of −3 is The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, an absolute value is also defined for the complex numbers, the quaternions, ordered rings, fields and vector spaces. The absolute value is closely related to the notions of magnitude, distance, and norm in various mathematical and physical contexts. Terminology and notation In 1806, JeanRobert Argand introduced the term ''module'', meaning ''unit of measure'' in French, specifically for the ''complex'' absolute value,Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, June 2008 an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Oxford English Dictionary
The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the first and foundational historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of ''A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society''. In 1895, the title ''The Oxford English Dictionary'' was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in 10 bound volumes. In 1933, the title ''The Oxford English Dictionary'' fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as 12 volumes with a onev ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Absolute Difference
The absolute difference of two real numbers x and y is given by , xy, , the absolute value of their difference. It describes the distance on the real line between the points corresponding to x and y. It is a special case of the Lp distance for all 1\le p\le\infty and is the standard metric used for both the set of rational numbers \Q and their completion, the set of real numbers \R. As with any metric, the metric properties hold: * , xy, \ge 0, since absolute value is always nonnegative. * , xy, = 0 if and only if x=y. * , xy, =, yx, (''symmetry'' or ''commutativity''). * , xz, \le, xy, +, yz, (''triangle inequality''); in the case of the absolute difference, equality holds if and only if x\le y\le z or x\ge y\ge z. By contrast, simple subtraction is not nonnegative or commutative, but it does obey the second and fourth properties above, since xy=0 if and only if x=y, and xz=(xy)+(yz). The absolute difference ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line (geometry), line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as speciallymarked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set (mathematics), set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometry, geometric space (mathematics), space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analytic Geometry
In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system. This contrasts with synthetic geometry. Analytic geometry is used in physics and engineering, and also in aviation, Aerospace engineering, rocketry, space science, and spaceflight. It is the foundation of most modern fields of geometry, including Algebraic geometry, algebraic, Differential geometry, differential, Discrete geometry, discrete and computational geometry. Usually the Cartesian coordinate system is applied to manipulate equations for planes, straight lines, and circles, often in two and sometimes three dimensions. Geometrically, one studies the Euclidean plane (two dimensions) and Euclidean space. As taught in school books, analytic geometry can be explained more simply: it is concerned with defining and representing geometric shapes in a numerical way and extracting numerical information from shapes' numerical defin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sup Norm
In mathematical analysis, the uniform norm (or ) assigns to real or complexvalued bounded functions defined on a set the nonnegative number :\, f\, _\infty = \, f\, _ = \sup\left\. This norm is also called the , the , the , or, when the supremum is in fact the maximum, the . The name "uniform norm" derives from the fact that a sequence of functions converges to under the metric derived from the uniform norm if and only if converges to uniformly. If is a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval, or more generally a compact set, then it is bounded and the supremum in the above definition is attained by the Weierstrass extreme value theorem, so we can replace the supremum by the maximum. In this case, the norm is also called the . In particular, if is some vector such that x = \left(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n\right) in finite dimensional coordinate space, it takes the form: :\, x\, _\infty := \max \left(\left, x_1\ , \ldots , \left, x_n\\right). Metric and to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Norm
Euclidean space is the fundamental space of geometry, intended to represent physical space. Originally, that is, in Euclid's ''Elements'', it was the threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any positive integer dimension, including the threedimensional space and the '' Euclidean plane'' (dimension two). The qualifier "Euclidean" is used to distinguish Euclidean spaces from other spaces that were later considered in physics and modern mathematics. Ancient Greek geometers introduced Euclidean space for modeling the physical space. Their work was collected by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in his ''Elements'', with the great innovation of '' proving'' all properties of the space as theorems, by starting from a few fundamental properties, called ''postulates'', which either were considered as evident (for example, there is exactly one straight line passing through two points), or seemed impossible to prove (par ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normed Division Algebra
In mathematics, Hurwitz's theorem is a theorem of Adolf Hurwitz (1859–1919), published posthumously in 1923, solving the Hurwitz problem for finitedimensional unital real nonassociative algebras endowed with a positivedefinite quadratic form. The theorem states that if the quadratic form defines a homomorphism into the positive real numbers on the nonzero part of the algebra, then the algebra must be isomorphic to the real numbers, the complex numbers, the quaternions, or the octonions. Such algebras, sometimes called Hurwitz algebras, are examples of composition algebras. The theory of composition algebras has subsequently been generalized to arbitrary quadratic forms and arbitrary fields. Hurwitz's theorem implies that multiplicative formulas for sums of squares can only occur in 1, 2, 4 and 8 dimensions, a result originally proved by Hurwitz in 1898. It is a special case of the Hurwitz problem, solved also in . Subsequent proofs of the restrictions on the dimension have be ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Determinant
In mathematics, the determinant is a scalar value that is a function of the entries of a square matrix. It characterizes some properties of the matrix and the linear map represented by the matrix. In particular, the determinant is nonzero if and only if the matrix is invertible and the linear map represented by the matrix is an isomorphism. The determinant of a product of matrices is the product of their determinants (the preceding property is a corollary of this one). The determinant of a matrix is denoted , , or . The determinant of a matrix is :\begin a & b\\c & d \end=adbc, and the determinant of a matrix is : \begin a & b & c \\ d & e & f \\ g & h & i \end= aei + bfg + cdh  ceg  bdi  afh. The determinant of a matrix can be defined in several equivalent ways. Leibniz formula expresses the determinant as a sum of signed products of matrix entries such that each summand is the product of different entries, and the number of these summands is n!, the factorial of (t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix (math)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & 13 \\20 & 5 & 6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of incidence matrices, and adjacency matrices. ''This article focuses on matrices related to linear algebra, and, unles ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Karl Weierstrass
Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (german: link=no, Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis". Despite leaving university without a degree, he studied mathematics and trained as a school teacher, eventually teaching mathematics, physics, botany and gymnastics. He later received an honorary doctorate and became professor of mathematics in Berlin. Among many other contributions, Weierstrass formalized the definition of the continuity of a function, proved the intermediate value theorem and the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, and used the latter to study the properties of continuous functions on closed bounded intervals. Biography Weierstrass was born into a Roman Catholic family in Ostenfelde, a village near Ennigerloh, in the Province of Westphalia. Weierstrass was the son of Wilhelm Weierstrass, a government official, and Theodora Vonderforst both of whom were catholic Rhinelanders. His int ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 