Zygomatic Branches Of The Facial Nerve
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Zygomatic Branches Of The Facial Nerve
The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) are nerves of the face. They run across the zygomatic bone to the lateral angle of the orbit. Here, they supply the orbicularis oculi muscle, and join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V2). Structure The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve are branches of the facial nerve (CN VII). They run across the zygomatic bone to the lateral angle of the orbit. This is deep to zygomaticus major muscle. They send fibres to orbicularis oculi muscle. Connections The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve have many nerve connections. Along their course, there may be connections with the buccal branches of the facial nerve. They join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial nerve from the maxillary nerve (CN V2). They also join with the inferior palpebral nerve and the superior labial nerve, both from the infraorbital nerve. Function The ...
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Facial Nerve
The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve VII, or simply CN VII, is a cranial nerve that emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The nerve typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen. It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve). The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis. The path of the facial nerve can be divided into six segments: # intracranial (cisternal) segment # meatal (canalicular) segment (within the internal auditory canal) # labyrinthine segment (in ...
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Elsevier
Elsevier () is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as ''The Lancet'', ''Cell'', the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, '' Trends'', the '' Current Opinion'' series, the online citation database Scopus, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance, the ClinicalKey search engine for clinicians, and the ClinicalPath evidence-based cancer care service. Elsevier's products and services also include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics and assessment. Elsevier is part of the RELX Group (known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier), a publicly traded company. According to RELX reports, in 2021 Elsevier published more than 600,000 articles annually in over 2,700 journals; as of 2018 its archives contained over 17 million documents and 40,000 e-books, with over one billion annual downloads. Researchers have criticized Elsevier for its high profit margi ...
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Zygomaticus Major Muscle
The zygomaticus major muscle is a muscle of the human body. It extends from each zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the corners of the mouth. It is a muscle of facial expression which draws the angle of the mouth superiorly and posteriorly to allow one to smile. Bifid zygomaticus major muscle is a notable variant, and may cause cheek dimples. Structure The zygomaticus major muscle originates from the upper margin of the temporal process, part of the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone. It inserts into tissue at the corner of the mouth. Nerve supply The zygomaticus major muscle is supplied by a buccal branch and a zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (VII). Variation The zygomaticus major muscle may occur in a bifid form, with two fascicles that are partially or completely separate from each other but adjacent. Usually a single unit, dimples are caused by variations in form. It is thought that cheek dimples are caused by bifid zygomaticus major muscle. Function The zygoma ...
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Zygomatic Nerve
The zygomatic nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve, itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It travels through the orbit and divides into the zygomaticotemporal and the zygomaticofacial nerve. It provides sensory supply to skin over the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone. It also carries postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the lacrimal gland. It may be blocked by anaesthetising the maxillary nerve. Structure The zygomatic nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V2), itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It branches at the pterygopalatine ganglion. It travels from the pterygopalatine fossa through the inferior orbital fissure to enter the orbit. In the orbit, it travels anteriorly along the lateral wall. Branches Soon after the zygomatic nerve enters the orbit it divides into its branches. These include: * the zygomaticotemporal nerve. This passes through the zygomaticotemporal foramen in the zygomatic bone. * the zygomaticofacial nerve ...
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Saunders (imprint)
Saunders is an American academic publisher based in the United States. It is currently an imprint of Elsevier. Formerly independent, the W. B. Saunders company was acquired by CBS in 1968, who added it to their publishing division Holt, Rinehart & Winston. When CBS left the publishing field in 1986, it sold the academic publishing units to Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Harcourt was acquired by Reed Elsevier in 2001."Reed Elsevier Timeline"
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Northern Illinois University Libraries Northern Illinois University (NIU) is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois. It was founded as Northern Illinois State Normal School on May 22, 1895, by Illi ...
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Temporomandibular Joint
In anatomy, the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull. It is a bilateral synovial articulation between the temporal bone of the skull above and the mandible below; it is from these bones that its name is derived. This joint is unique in that it is a bilateral joint that functions as one unit. Since the TMJ is connected to the mandible, the right and left joints must function together and therefore are not independent of each other. Structure The main components are the joint capsule, articular disc, mandibular condyles, articular surface of the temporal bone, temporomandibular ligament, stylomandibular ligament, sphenomandibular ligament, and lateral pterygoid muscle. Capsule The articular capsule (capsular ligament) is a thin, loose envelope, attached above to the circumference of the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle immediately in front; below, to the neck of the condyle of the mandible. Its loose attachment to t ...
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Electrode
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air). Electrodes are essential parts of batteries that can consist of a variety of materials depending on the type of battery. The electrophore, invented by Johan Wilcke, was an early version of an electrode used to study static electricity. Anode and cathode in electrochemical cells Electrodes are an essential part of any battery. The first electrochemical battery made was devised by Alessandro Volta and was aptly named the Voltaic cell. This battery consisted of a stack of copper and zinc electrodes separated by brine-soaked paper disks. Due to fluctuation in the voltage provided by the voltaic cell it wasn't very practical. The first practical battery was invented in 1839 and named the Daniell cell after John Frederic Daniell. Still making use of the zinc–copper electrode combination. Since then many more batteries ha ...
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Infraorbital Nerve
The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve, itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It travels through the orbit and enters the infraorbital canal to exit onto the face through the infraorbital foramen. It provides sensory innervation to the skin and mucous membranes around the middle of the face. Structure The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V2), itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It travels with the infraorbital artery and vein. It branches from the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa and travels through the inferior orbital fissure to enter the orbit. It runs anteriorly along the floor of the orbit in the infraorbital groove to the infraorbital canal of the maxilla. Within the infraorbital canal it has three branches, the posterior superior alveolar nerve, middle superior alveolar nerve and anterior superior alveolar nerve. After traversing the canal it emerges onto the anterior surface of the maxilla th ...
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Superior Labial Nerve
The superior labial branches (labial branches), the largest and most numerous, descend behind the quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. They are joined, immediately beneath the orbit, by filaments from the facial nerve, forming with them the infraorbital plexus. See also * Superior labial artery The superior labial artery (superior labial branch of facial artery) is larger and more egregious than the inferior labial artery. It follows a similar course along the edge of the upper lip, lying between the mucous membrane and the orbicularis ... External links Maxillary nerve {{Neuroanatomy-stub ...
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Inferior Palpebral Nerve
The Inferior palpebral nerve (inferior palpebral branches) ascend behind the orbicularis oculi. They supply the skin and conjunctiva of the lower eyelid, joining at the lateral angle of the orbit with the facial and zygomaticofacial nerve The zygomaticofacial nerve or zygomaticofacial branch of zygomatic nerve (malar branch) passes along the infero-lateral angle of the orbit, emerges upon the face through the zygomaticofacial foramen in the zygomatic bone, and, perforating the orb ...s. References Maxillary nerve {{Neuroanatomy-stub ...
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Academic Press
Academic Press (AP) is an academic book publisher founded in 1941. It was acquired by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1969. Reed Elsevier bought Harcourt in 2000, and Academic Press is now an imprint of Elsevier. Academic Press publishes reference books, serials and online products in the subject areas of: * Communications engineering * Economics * Environmental science * Finance * Food science and nutrition * Geophysics * Life sciences * Mathematics and statistics * Neuroscience * Physical sciences * Psychology Well-known products include the '' Methods in Enzymology'' series and encyclopedias such as ''The International Encyclopedia of Public Health'' and the ''Encyclopedia of Neuroscience''. See also * Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft The (AVG, AVg, Aka, AV; English: Academic publishing company) in Leipzig was an important German academic publisher, which was founded in 1906. The original Jewish owners of the publishing house and key employees were expropriated during ...
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Zygomaticofacial Nerve
The zygomaticofacial nerve or zygomaticofacial branch of zygomatic nerve (malar branch) passes along the infero-lateral angle of the orbit, emerges upon the face through the zygomaticofacial foramen in the zygomatic bone, and, perforating the orbicularis oculi to reach the skin of the malar area. It joins with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and with the inferior palpebral branches of the maxillary nerve In neuroanatomy, the maxillary nerve (V) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (CN V) cranial nerve. It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxilla, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate ... (V2). The area of skin supplied by this nerve is over the prominence of the cheek. References External links * * Maxillary nerve {{Neuroanatomy-stub ...
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