Zheng Chenggong
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Zheng Chenggong
Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally as Koxinga () or Cheng Ch'eng-kung, was a Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qing transition, or Manchu invasion of China from 1618 to 1683 saw the transition between two major dynasties A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, ... in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast. In 1661, Koxinga defeated the Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ... outposts on Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and mo ...
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Kingdom Of Tungning
The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic Thalassocracy, maritime state that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) and Penghu islands between 1661 and 1683, and regarded as the first predominantly Han Chinese state in Taiwanese history. At its peak the kingdom's maritime power dominated varying extents of coastal regions of southeastern China, and its vast trade network stretched from Japan to Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded by Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) after Siege of Fort Zeelandia, seizing control of Taiwan from Dutch Formosa, Dutch rule. Zheng hoped to restore Ming Dynasty, Ming dynastic rule on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland, when Southern Ming, the Ming remnants' rump state in southern China was Qing conquest of the Ming, progressively conquered by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Zheng dynasts used the newly owned island as part of the Southern Ming#Koxinga, loyalist movement. They aimed to recl ...
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Fujian
Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ... on the southeastern coast of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap .... Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ... to the north, Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan C ...
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Nanking
Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regi ... province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ... of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ..., a sub-provincial city, a megacity A megacity is a very large city, typically wi ...
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Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The courtesy ... Changbai () or Changbo (), 1612 – 2 October 1678, was a Chinese military leader who played an instrumental role in the fall of the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ... and the establishment of the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ... in its place. I ...
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Jingshan Park
Jingshan Park is an imperial park covering immediately north of the Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a or . The word is derived from the name palātium, for in Rome which housed ... in the Imperial City area of Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ..., China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere .... The focal point is the artificial hill Jingshan (), literally "Prospect Hill". Formerly a private imperi ...
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Chongzhen Emperor
The Chongzhen Emperor (; 6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The courtesy ... Deyue (),Wang Yuan (王源),''Ju ye tang wen ji'' (《居業堂文集》), vol. 19. was the 17th and last Emperor of the Ming dynasty as well as the last ethnic Han to rule over China before the Manchu Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ... conquest. He reigned from 1627 to 1644. "Chongzhen," the era name A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the h ...
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Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, Dashing King, was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ... in 1644 and ruled over northern China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty The Shun dynasty (), officially the Great Shun (), was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty that existed during the Transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qing transition in History of China, Chinese history. The dynasty was founded ... before his death a year later. Biography Li Zicheng was born in 1606 as Li Hongji to an impoverished family of farmers in Li Jiqian village, Yan'an prefecture, northeast Shaanxi province. Li Zicheng had a brother who was 20 y ...
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Beijing
Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures based on 2006 statistics published in 2007 National Statistical Yearbook of China and available online at . Retrieved 21 April 2009. Beijing is mostly surrounded by Province with the exception of neighboring to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the and the of China. Beijing is a , and one of the world's leading centers for , and , , , , and . A , Beijing is the second-largest Chinese city by after and is the nation's , , and center. It is home to the headquarters of most of and houses the largest number of companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest , by total assets. Beijing is the "" with the highest number of billionaires living in the city. It is also a for the , , , and networks. The has ...
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Qian Qianyi
Qian Qianyi (; Suzhou dialect: ; 1582–1664) was a Chinese historian, poet, and politician during the late Ming dynasty.Cihai: Page 1704. Qian was a famous author and poet; and along with Gong Dingzi and Wu Weiye was known as one of the Three Masters of Jiangdong.Zhang, 71 Biography Qian was born in Changshu county of Suzhou prefecture (now in Jiangsu province). His courtesy name was "Shouzhi" () and his Art name, pseudonyms were "Muzhai" () and later "Mengsou" (). He passed the imperial examination in 1610 at the age of 28. Qian knew many independent women from entertainment and artistic circles, whom he treated as equals. One was a Ma Ruyu from Nanking, a consummate actress. She had had a good formal education. In addition she could paint and produce calligraphy in the square style. In her time she intimidated the male literati around her. Like many others of her kind, she abandoned her stage life and took up religion, building a Buddhist retreat. Another was Liu Rushi (1618 ...
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Guozijian
The Guozijian,Yuan, 194. sometimes translated as the Imperial College, Imperial Academy, Imperial University, National Academy, or National University, was the national central institution of higher learning in Chinese dynasties Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were Hereditary monarchy, hereditary Monarchy, monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of History of China, its history. From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in ... after the Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of .... It was the highest institution of academic research and learning in China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () ...
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Hui'an County
() is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ... under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It ... of Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ..., Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Admi ...
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Jinshi
''Jinshi'' () was the highest and final degree in the imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ... in Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and .... The examination was usually taken in the imperial capital in the palace, and was also called the Metropolitan Exam. Recipients are sometimes referred to in English-language sources as Imperial Scholars. The ''jinshi'' degree was first created after the institutionalization of the civil service exam. Initially it had been "for six categories" but was later consolidated into a single degr ...
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