Treaties Of The European Union
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Treaties Of The European Union
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relation ... between the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ... (EU) member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was establi ... which sets out the EU's constitutional basis. They establish the various EU institutions together with their remit, ...
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Ministry Of Foreign Affairs (Italy)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation ( it, Ministero degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale or ''MAECI'') is the foreign ministry of the government of the Italian Republic. It is also known as the Farnesina as a metonym from its headquarters, the Palazzo della Farnesina in Rome. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Luigi Di Maio. History The first official manifestation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was called ''The Secretary of the State of Foreign Affairs'' for the now defunct Kingdom of Sardinia. The original name was derived from the Albertine Statute that founded the Ministry in 1848. The original location was the Palazzo della Consulta in Rome, where it remained until 1922. The first significant reform came under the direction of the minister Carlo Sforza who reorganized the Ministry around territorial bases. However, this system was later replaced during Benito Mussolini's fascist regime. During this time the Ministry ...
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Subsidiarity
Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution. The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' defines subsidiarity as "the principle that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed at a more local level". The concept is applicable in the fields of government, political science, neuropsychology, cybernetics, management and in military command (mission command). The OED adds that the term "subsidiarity" in English follows the early German usage of ''"Subsidiarität"''. More distantly, it is derived from the Latin verb ''subsidio'' (to aid or help), and the related noun ''subsidium'' (aid or assistance). The concept originates in the writings of Calvinist law-philosopher Johannes Althaus who used the word "subsidia" in 1603. As a principle of just social order, it became Subsidiarit ...
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European Central Bank
File:+ The European Central Bank ECB in Frankfurt am Main - Image impression of a street photographer.jpg, European Central Bank (ECB) - 2021 The European Central Bank (ECB) is the prime component of the Eurosystem The Eurosystem is the monetary authority In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investment ... and the European System of Central Banks The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency and monetary policy of a ... (ESCB) as well as one of seven institutions of the European Union The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision-making bodies of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political ...
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Court Of Justice Of The European Union
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (french: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne or "''CJUE''"; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...: Curia) is the judicial branch The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ... of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ... (EU). Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City ...
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European Commission
The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the princi ... of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in ..., responsible for proposing legislation, enforcing EU laws and directing the union's administrative operations. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice The European Court of Justice (ECJ, french: Cour de Justice européenne), formally just the Court of Justice, is the supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a ...
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Council Of The European Union
A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature, especially at a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ..., city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ... or county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo .../shire Shire is a traditional term for an administrative di ...
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European Council
The European Council (informally EUCO) is a collegiate body that defines the overall political directions and priorities of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in .... It is composed of the heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ... or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ... of the EU member states The Eur ...
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European Parliament
The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, commonly on the proposal of the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of 705 Member of the European Parliament, members (MEPs). It represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible Voting, voters in 2009). Since 1979, the Parliament has been directly elected every five years by the Citizenship of the European Union, citizens of the European Union through universal suffrage. Voter turnout in parliamentary elections decreased each time after 1979 European Parliament election, 1979 until 2019 European Parliament election, 2019, when voter turnout increased by eight percentage points, an ...
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European Citizens' Initiative
The European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) is a European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in ... (EU) mechanism aimed at increasing direct democracy upright=1.5, A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland">canton_of_Glarus.html" ;"title="Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus">Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 200 ... by enabling "EU citizens to participate directly in the development of EU policies", introduced with the Treaty of Lisbon The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also ... ...
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