Time (magazine) People
Time is the continued sequence of existence and events that occurs in an apparently irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various measurements used to sequence events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change of quantities in material reality or in the conscious experience. Time is often referred to as a fourth dimension, along with three spatial dimensions. Time has long been an important subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems. 108 pages. Time in physics is operationally defined as "what a clock reads". The physical nature of time is address ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''inf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circular Definition
A circular definition is a description that uses the term(s) being defined as part of the description or assumes that the term(s) being described are already known. There are several kinds of circular definition, and several ways of characterising the term: pragmatic, lexicographic and linguistic. Circular definitions may be unhelpful if the audience must either already know the meaning of the key term, or if the term to be defined is used in the definition itself. Approaches to characterizing circular definitions Pragmatic From a pragmatic point of view, circular definitions may be characterised in terms of new, useful or helpful information: A definition is deficient if the audience must either already know the meaning of the key term, or if the term to be defined is used in the definition itself. Such definitions lead to a need for additional information that motivated someone to look at the definition in the first place and, thus, violate the principle of providing new ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electronic Transition
A quantum jump is the abrupt transition of a quantum system ( atom, molecule, atomic nucleus) from one quantum state to another, from one energy level to another. When the system absorbs energy, there is a transition to a higher energy level ( excitation); when the system loses energy, there is a transition to a lower energy level. The concept was introduced by Niels Bohr, in his 1913 Bohr model. A quantum jump is a phenomenon that is peculiar to quantum systems and distinguishes them from classical systems, where any transitions are performed gradually. In quantum mechanics, such jumps are associated with the nonunitary evolution of a quantummechanical system during measurement. A quantum jump can be accompanied by the emission or absorption of photons; energy transfer during a quantum jump can also occur by nonradiative resonant energy transfer or in collisions with other particles. In modern physics, the concept of a quantum jump is rarely used; as a rule scientists spe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Second
The second (symbol: s) is the unit of time in the International System of Units (SI), historically defined as of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each (24 × 60 × 60 = 86400). The current and formal definition in the International System of Units ( SI) is more precise:The second ..is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the caesium frequency, Δ''ν''Cs, the unperturbed groundstate hyperfine transition frequency of the caesium 133 atom, to be when expressed in the unit Hz, which is equal to s−1. This current definition was adopted in 1967 when it became feasible to define the second based on fundamental properties of nature with caesium clocks. Because the speed of Earth's rotation varies and is slowing ever so slightly, a leap second is added at irregular intervals to civil time to keep clocks in sync with Earth's rotation. Uses Analog clocks and watches often hav ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit Of Time
A unit of time is any particular time interval, used as a standard way of measuring or expressing duration. The base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) and by extension most of the Western world, is the second, defined as about 9 billion oscillations of the caesium atom. The exact modern SI definition is " he secondis defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the cesium frequency, , the unperturbed groundstate hyperfine transition frequency of the cesium 133 atom, to be 9 192 631 770 when expressed in the unit Hz, which is equal to s−1." Historically, many units of time were defined by the movements of astronomical objects. * Sunbased: the year was the time for the Earth to revolve around the Sun. Historical yearbased units include the Olympiad (four years), the lustrum (five years), the indiction (15 years), the decade, the century, and the millennium. * Moonbased: the month was based on the Moon's orbital period around the Earth. * Earthb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

International System Of Quantities
The International System of Quantities (ISQ) consists of the quantities used in physics and in modern science in general, starting with basic quantities such as length and mass, and the relationships between those quantities. This system underlies the International System of Units (SI) but does not itself determine the units of measurement used for the quantities. It is inherently incomplete because the number of quantities is potentially infinite. The system is formally described in a multipart ISO standard ISO/IEC 80000, first completed in 2009 but subsequently revised and expanded. Base quantities The base quantities of a given system of physical quantities is a subset of those quantities, where no base quantity can be expressed in terms of the others, but where every quantity in the system can be expressed in terms of the base quantities. Within this constraint, the set of base quantities is chosen by convention. The ISQ defines seven base quantities. The symbols fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

International System Of Units
The International System of Units, known by the international abbreviation SI in all languages and sometimes pleonastically as the SI system, is the modern form of the metric system and the world's most widely used system of measurement. Established and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), it is the only system of measurement with an official status in nearly every country in the world, employed in science, technology, industry, and everyday commerce. The SI comprises a coherent system of units of measurement starting with seven base units, which are the second (symbol s, the unit of time), metre (m, length), kilogram (kg, mass), ampere (A, electric current), kelvin (K, thermodynamic temperature), mole (mol, amount of substance), and candela (cd, luminous intensity). The system can accommodate coherent units for an unlimited number of additional quantities. These are called coherent derived units, which can always be represented as product ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Michelson–Morley Experiment
The Michelson–Morley experiment was an attempt to detect the existence of the luminiferous aether, a supposed medium permeating space that was thought to be the carrier of light waves. The experiment was performed between April and July 1887 by American physicists Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year. The experiment compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the stationary luminiferous aether ("aether wind"). The result was negative, in that Michelson and Morley found no significant difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles. This result is generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the thenprevalent Aether theories, aether theory, as well as initiating a line of research that eventually led ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Supernova
A supernova is a powerful and luminous explosion of a star. It has the plural form supernovae or supernovas, and is abbreviated SN or SNe. This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion. The original object, called the ''progenitor'', either collapses to a neutron star or black hole, or is completely destroyed. The peak optical luminosity of a supernova can be comparable to that of an entire galaxy before fading over several weeks or months. Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin, ''nova'' means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star. Adding the prefix "super" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous. The word ''supernova'' was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1929. The last supernova to be directly observed in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in 1604, appearing no ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Particle Collision
In particle physics, an event refers to the results just after a fundamental interaction takes place between subatomic particles, occurring in a very short time span, at a welllocalized region of space. Because of the uncertainty principle, an event in particle physics does not have quite the same meaning as it does in the theory of relativity, in which an "event" is a point in spacetime which can be known exactly, i.e., a spacetime coordinate. Overview In a typical particle physics event, the incoming particles are scattered or destroyed, and up to hundreds of particles can be produced, although few are likely to be new particles not discovered before. In the old bubble chambers and cloud chambers, "events" could be seen by observing charged particle tracks emerging from the region of the event before they curl due to the magnetic field through the chamber acting on the particles. At modern particle accelerators, events are the result of the interactions which occur from a bea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spacetime
In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single fourdimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why different observers perceive differently where and when events occur. Until the 20th century, it was assumed that the threedimensional geometry of the universe (its spatial expression in terms of coordinates, distances, and directions) was independent of onedimensional time. The physicist Albert Einstein helped develop the idea of spacetime as part of his theory of relativity. Prior to his pioneering work, scientists had two separate theories to explain physical phenomena: Isaac Newton's laws of physics described the motion of massive objects, while James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic models explained the properties of light. However, in 1905, Einstein based a work on special relativity on two postulates: * The laws of physics are invariant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

General Relativity
General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity and Einstein's theory of gravity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and refines Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time or fourdimensional spacetime. In particular, the ' is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of second order partial differential equations. Newton's law of universal gravitation, which describes classical gravity, can be seen as a prediction of general relativity for the almost flat spacetime geometry around stationary mass distributions. Some predictions of general relativity, however, are beyond Newton's law of universal gravitation in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 