The Halting Problem
In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running, or continue to run forever. Alan Turing proved in 1936 that a general algorithm to solve the halting problem for all possible program–input pairs cannot exist. For any program that might determine whether programs halt, a "pathological" program , called with some input, can pass its own source and its input to ''f'' and then specifically do the opposite of what ''f'' predicts ''g'' will do. No ''f'' can exist that handles this case. A key part of the proof is a mathematical definition of a computer and program, which is known as a Turing machine; the halting problem is '' undecidable'' over Turing machines. It is one of the first cases of decision problems proven to be unsolvable. This proof is significant to practical computing efforts, defining a class of applications which no programming inventi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computability Theory (computer Science)
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, computer science, and the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. The field has since expanded to include the study of generalized computability and definability. In these areas, computability theory overlaps with proof theory and effective descriptive set theory. Basic questions addressed by computability theory include: * What does it mean for a function on the natural numbers to be computable? * How can noncomputable functions be classified into a hierarchy based on their level of noncomputability? Although there is considerable overlap in terms of knowledge and methods, mathematical computability theorists study the theory of relative computability, reducibility notions, and degree structures; those in the computer science field focus on the theory of subrecursive hierarchies, formal methods, and formal languages. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

SPARK (programming Language)
SPARK is a formally defined computer programming language based on the Ada programming language, intended for the development of high integrity software used in systems where predictable and highly reliable operation is essential. It facilitates the development of applications that demand safety, security, or business integrity. Originally, there were three versions of the SPARK language (SPARK83, SPARK95, SPARK2005) based on Ada 83, Ada 95 and Ada 2005 respectively. A fourth version of the SPARK language, SPARK 2014, based on Ada 2012, was released on April 30, 2014. SPARK 2014 is a complete redesign of the language and supporting verification tools. The SPARK language consists of a welldefined subset of the Ada language that uses contracts to describe the specification of components in a form that is suitable for both static and dynamic verification. In SPARK83/95/2005, the contracts are encoded in Ada comments and so are ignored by any standard Ada compiler, but are p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tag System
A tag system is a deterministic computational model published by Emil Leon Post in 1943 as a simple form of a Post canonical system. A tag system may also be viewed as an abstract machine, called a Post tag machine (not to be confused with Post–Turing machines)—briefly, a finitestate machine whose only tape is a FIFO queue of unbounded length, such that in each transition the machine reads the symbol at the head of the queue, deletes a constant number of symbols from the head, and appends to the tail a symbolstring that depends solely on the first symbol read in this transition. Because all of the indicated operations are performed in a single transition, a tag machine strictly has only one state. Definitions A ''tag system'' is a triplet (''m'', ''A'', ''P''), where * ''m'' is a positive integer, called the ''deletion number''. * ''A'' is a finite alphabet of symbols, one of which is a special ''halting symbol''. All finite (possibly empty) strings on ''A'' are called ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Emil Post
Emil Leon Post (; February 11, 1897 – April 21, 1954) was an American mathematician and logician. He is best known for his work in the field that eventually became known as computability theory. Life Post was born in Augustów, Suwałki Governorate, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (now Poland) into a PolishJewish family that immigrated to New York City in May 1904. His parents were Arnold and Pearl Post. Post had been interested in astronomy, but at the age of twelve lost his left arm in a car accident. This loss was a significant obstacle to being a professional astronomer, leading to his decision to pursue mathematics rather than astronomy. Post attended the Townsend Harris High School and continued on to graduate from City College of New York in 1917 with a B.S. in Mathematics. After completing his Ph.D. in mathematics in 1920 at Columbia University, supervised by Cassius Jackson Keyser, he did a postdoctorate at Princeton University in the 1920–1921 academic year. Pos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Peano Axioms
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano. These axioms have been used nearly unchanged in a number of metamathematical investigations, including research into fundamental questions of whether number theory is consistent and complete. The need to formalize arithmetic was not well appreciated until the work of Hermann Grassmann, who showed in the 1860s that many facts in arithmetic could be derived from more basic facts about the successor operation and induction. In 1881, Charles Sanders Peirce provided an axiomatization of naturalnumber arithmetic. In 1888, Richard Dedekind proposed another axiomatization of naturalnumber arithmetic, and in 1889, Peano published a simplified version of them as a collection of axioms in his book, ''The principles of arithmetic presented by a new method'' ( la, Arithmet ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

International Congress Of Mathematicians
The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) is the largest conference for the topic of mathematics. It meets once every four years, hosted by the International Mathematical Union (IMU). The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize (to be renamed as the IMU Abacus Medal), the Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize, Gauss Prize, and the Chern Medal are awarded during the congress's opening ceremony. Each congress is memorialized by a printed set of Proceedings recording academic papers based on invited talks intended to be relevant to current topics of general interest. Being List of International Congresses of Mathematicians Plenary and Invited Speakers, invited to talk at the ICM has been called "the equivalent ... of an induction to a hall of fame". History Felix Klein and Georg Cantor are credited with putting forward the idea of an international congress of mathematicians in the 1890s.A. John Coleman"Mathematics without borders": a book review ''CMS Notes'', vol 31, no. 3, April 1999 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert's Problems
Hilbert's problems are 23 problems in mathematics published by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900. They were all unsolved at the time, and several proved to be very influential for 20thcentury mathematics. Hilbert presented ten of the problems (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 19, 21, and 22) at the Paris conference of the International Congress of Mathematicians, speaking on August 8 at the University of Paris, Sorbonne. The complete list of 23 problems was published later, in English translation in 1902 by Mary Frances Winston Newson in the ''Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society''. Earlier publications (in the original German) appeared in and Nature and influence of the problems Hilbert's problems ranged greatly in topic and precision. Some of them, like the 3rd problem, which was the first to be solved, or the 8th problem (the Riemann hypothesis), which still remains unresolved, were presented precisely enough to enable a clear affirmative or negative answer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

David Hilbert
David Hilbert (; ; 23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician, one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, the calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, and the foundations of mathematics (particularly proof theory). Hilbert adopted and defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. In 1900, he presented a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed significantly to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. Life Early life and edu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Turing's Proof
Turing's proof is a proof by Alan Turing, first published in January 1937 with the title "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the ". It was the second proof (after Church's theorem) of the negation of Hilbert's ; that is, the conjecture that some purely mathematical yes–no questions can never be answered by computation; more technically, that some decision problems are " undecidable" in the sense that there is no single algorithm that infallibly gives a correct "yes" or "no" answer to each instance of the problem. In Turing's own words: "what I shall prove is quite different from the wellknown results of Gödel ... I shall now show that there is no general method which tells whether a given formula U is provable in K 'Principia Mathematica''">Principia_Mathematica.html" ;"title="'Principia Mathematica">'Principia Mathematica''. Turing followed this proof with two others. The second and third both rely on the first. All rely on his development of typewriterlike "comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lambda Calculus
Lambda calculus (also written as ''λ''calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution. It is a universal model of computation that can be used to simulate any Turing machine. It was introduced by the mathematician Alonzo Church in the 1930s as part of his research into the foundations of mathematics. Lambda calculus consists of constructing § lambda terms and performing § reduction operations on them. In the simplest form of lambda calculus, terms are built using only the following rules: * x – variable, a character or string representing a parameter or mathematical/logical value. * (\lambda x.M) – abstraction, function definition (M is a lambda term). The variable x becomes bound in the expression. * (M\ N) – application, applying a function M to an argument N. M and N are lambda terms. The reduction operations include: * (\lambda x.M \rightarrow(\l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alonzo Church
Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician, computer scientist, logician, philosopher, professor and editor who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science. He is best known for the lambda calculus, the Church–Turing thesis, proving the unsolvability of the Entscheidungsproblem, the Frege–Church ontology, and the Church–Rosser theorem. He also worked on philosophy of language (see e.g. Church 1970). Alongside his student Alan Turing, Church is considered one of the founders of computer science. Life Alonzo Church was born on June 14, 1903, in Washington, D.C., where his father, Samuel Robbins Church, was a Justice of the Peace and the judge of the Municipal Court for the District of Columbia. He was the grandson of Alonzo Webster Church (18291909), United States Senate Librarian from 18811901, and great grandson of Alonzo Church, a Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy and 6th Pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Undecidable Problem
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is proved to be impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct yesorno answer. The halting problem is an example: it can be proven that there is no algorithm that correctly determines whether arbitrary programs eventually halt when run. Background A decision problem is any arbitrary yesorno question on an infinite set of inputs. Because of this, it is traditional to define the decision problem equivalently as the set of inputs for which the problem returns ''yes''. These inputs can be natural numbers, but also other values of some other kind, such as strings of a formal language. Using some encoding, such as a Gödel numbering, the strings can be encoded as natural numbers. Thus, a decision problem informally phrased in terms of a formal language is also equivalent to a set of natural numbers. To keep the formal definition simple, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 