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Thai Solar Calendar
The Thai solar calendar ( th|ปฏิทินสุริยคติ, , "solar calendar") was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1888 CE as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand (though the latter is still also used, especially for traditional and religious events). Years are now counted in the Buddhist Era (B.E.): , () which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar. Years The Siamese generally used two calendars, a ''sacred'' and a ''popular'' (''vulgar'' in the classical sense). The vulgar or minor era (, ''chula sakarat'') was thought to have been instituted when the worship of Gautama was first introduced, and corresponds to the traditional Burmese calendar (abbreviated ME or BE, the latter not to be confused with the abbreviation for the Buddhist Era, which is the sacred era.) Rattanakosin Era King Chulalongkorn decreed a change in vulgar reckoning to the ''Rattanakosin Era'' (, ''Ra ...
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August2004rs
August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named ''Sextilis'' in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC (708 AUC), giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt. No other month starts on the same day of the week as August in common years, but in leap years, August starts on the same day of the week as February. August ends on the ...
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George Coedes
George may refer to: People * George (given name) * George (surname) Places Australia * Lake George (New South Wales) South Africa * George, Western Cape ** George Airport United States * George, Iowa * George, Missouri * George, Washington * George County, Mississippi * Lake George (New York) * George Air Force Base, a former U.S. Air Force base located in California In computing * George (algebraic compiler) also known as 'Laning and Zierler system', an algebraic compiler by Laning and Zierler in 1952 * GEORGE (computer), early computer built by Argonne National Laboratory in 1957 * GEORGE (operating system), a range of operating systems (George 1-4) for the ICT 1900 range of computers in the 1960s * GEORGE (programming language), an autocode system invented by Charles Leonard Hamblin in 1957 * George (robot), a simple humanoid robot built by Tony Sale in 1949 Film and television * ''George'' (1972 TV series), a Canadian-Swiss television series * the title character of ''Georg ...
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Luang Phibunsongkhram
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram ( th|แปลก พิบูลสงคราม ; alternatively transcribed as ''Pibulsongkram'' or ''Pibulsonggram''; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Marshal P. ( th|จอมพล ป.;), contemporarily known as Phibun (''Pibul'') in the West, was a Thai military officer and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Thailand and dictator from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. Phibunsongkhram was a member of the Royal Siamese Army wing of Khana Ratsadon, the first political party in Thailand, and a leader of the Siamese revolution of 1932 transforming Thailand from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. Phibun became the third Prime Minister of Thailand in 1938 as Commander of the Royal Siamese Army, established a ''de facto'' military dictatorship inspired by the Italian anti-communist Benito Mussolini, promoted Thai nationalism and sinophobia, and allied Thailand with Imperial Japan in World War II. Phibun ...
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Sidereal Astrology
Sidereal and tropical are terms used to describe two different definitions of a year. In astrology, they refer to two different systems of ecliptic coordinates used to divide the ecliptic into twelve "signs". Each sign is divided into 30 degrees, making a total of 360 degrees. While sidereal systems of astrology define the signs relative to the apparent backwards movement of fixed stars of about 1 degree every 72 years from the perspective of the Earth, tropical systems fix the vernal point or vernal equinox (also known as the March equinox in the Northern hemisphere) to 0 degrees of Aries and define the rest of the zodiac from this point. Sidereal astrology uses corrective systems known as ayanamsas (Sanskrit: 'ayana' "movement" + 'aṃśa' "component") to account for the precession of equinoxes, whereas tropical astrology does not use such measures. This has caused the two systems, which were identical around 2,000 years ago, to drift apart over the centuries. Ayanamsa systems ...
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Zodiac
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets are also within the belt of the zodiac. In Western astrology, and formerly astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and roughly corresponding to the constellations: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. These astrological signs form a celestial coordinate system, or even more specifically an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude and the Sun's position at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude. Name The English word ' derives from ', the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek ''zōidiakòs kýklos'' (), meaning "cycle or circle of little animals". ''Zōidion'' ( ...
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Astrological Sign
In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30° sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries. The order of the astrological signs is Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. Each sector was named for a constellation within it in the time of naming. These divisions were also used in scientific astronomy until the 19th century in some cases; see ecliptic coordinates. The concept of the zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, and was later influenced by Hellenistic culture. According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression. Modern discoveries about the true nature of celestial objects have undermined the theoretical basis for assigning meaning to astrol ...
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Aries (astrology)
Aries () (Latin for "ram") is the first astrological sign in the zodiac, spanning the first 30 degrees of celestial longitude (0°≤ <30°), and originates from the constellation of the same name. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this sign from approximately March 20 to April 21 each year. This time duration is exactly the first month of the Solar Hijri calendar (Arabic Hamal/Persian Farvardin/Wray). According to the
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Songkran (Thailand)
Songkran ( th|เทศกาลสงกรานต์, ) is the Thai New Year's Public holiday|national holiday. Songkran is on 13 April every year, but the holiday period extends from 14 to 15 April. In 2018 the Thai cabinet extended the festival nationwide to five days, 12–16 April, to enable citizens to travel home for the holiday. In 2019, the holiday was observed 12–16 April as 13 April fell on a Saturday. The word "Songkran" comes from the Sanskrit word ', literally "astrological passage", meaning transformation or change. It coincides with the rising of Aries on the astrological chart and with the New Year of many calendars of South and Southeast Asia, in keeping with the Hindu Calendar and Buddhist calendar. The New Year takes place at virtually the same time as the new year celebrations of many countries in South Asia like Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Dai People of Yunnan Province), India (Baisakhi in Punjab, Gudipadva in Maharashtra, Pana or Mahabisuba San ...
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Calendar Year
A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record (often paper) of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills. Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. The most common type of pre-modern calendar was the lunisolar calendar, a lunar calendar that occasionally adds one intercalary month to remain synchronized with the solar year over the long term. Etymology The term ''calendar'' is taken from ''calendae'', the term for the first day of the month in the Roman calendar, related to the verb ''calare'' "to call out", referring to the "calling" of the new moon when it ...
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New Year
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one. Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner. In the Gregorian calendar, the most widely used calendar system today, New Year occurs on January 1 (New Year's Day). This was also the first day of the year in the original Julian calendar and the Roman calendar (after 153 BC). During the Middle Ages in Western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, authorities moved New Year's Day, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, including March 1, March 25, Easter, September 1, and December 25. Beginning in 1582, the adoptions of the Gregorian calendar has meant that many national or local dates in the Western World and beyond have changed to using one fixed date for New Year's Day, January 1. Other cultures observe their traditional or religious New Years Day according to their own customs, sometimes in addition to a (Gregorian) civil calendar. ...
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Vajiravudh
Vajiravudh, also known as King Rama VI, reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua ( th|วชิราวุธ; ; 1 January 188126 November 1925), was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death in 1925. King Vajiravudh is known for his efforts to create and promote Siamese nationalism. His reign was characterized by Siam's movement further towards democracy and minimal participation in World War I. Education Prince Vajiravudh was born on 1 January 1881 to Chulalongkorn and one of his four queens of half sister, Saovabha Phongsri. In 1888, upon coming of age, Vajiravudh received the title ''Krom Khun'' Thep Dvaravati (Prince of Ayudhia). Prince Vajiravudh was first educated in the royal palace in Thai and English. In 1895, his half-brother Crown Prince Vajirunhis died and Vajiravudh was appointed the new Crown Prince of Siam. He continued his education in Britain, at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst in 1898 and was commissioned b ...
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Gautama Buddha
The Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha Shakyamuni) was a philosopher, mendicant, meditator, spiritual teacher, and religious leader who lived in ancient India (c. 5th to 4th century BCE). He is revered as the founder of the world religion of Buddhism, and recognized by most Buddhist schools as the Enlightened One who is believed to have transcended Karma and escaped the cycle of birth and rebirth. He taught for around 45 years and built a large following, both monastic and lay. His teaching is based on his insight into ''duḥkha'' (typically translated as "suffering") and the end of dukkha—the state called ''Nibbāna'' or ''Nirvana''. The Buddha was born into an aristocratic family in the Shakya clan but eventually renounced lay life. According to Buddhist tradition, after several years of mendicancy, meditation, and asceticism, he awakened to understand the mechanism which keeps people trapped in the cycle of rebirth. The Buddha the ...
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Year 0
The year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (AD) system commonly used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year is followed by . However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering (where it coincides with the Julian year ) and in ISO 8601:2004 (where it coincides with the Gregorian year ), as well as in most Buddhist and Hindu calendars. Historical, astronomical and ISO year numbering systems Historians The ''Anno Domini'' era was introduced in 525 by Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus (c. 470–c. 544), who used it to identify the years on his Easter table. He introduced the new era to avoid using the ''Diocletian era'', based on the accession of Roman Emperor Diocletian, as he did not wish to continue the memory of a persecutor of Christians. In the preface to his Easter table, Dionysius stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior lavius Anicius Probus Iunior which was ...
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