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Thai Nationalism
Thai nationalism is a political ideology involving the application of nationalism to the political discourse of Thailand. It was first popularized by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI, reigned 1910–1925), and was subsequently adopted and adapted by various leading political factions throughout the twentieth century. History The origins of Thai nationalist thought derive from the creation of the Thai nation-state in the mid-nineteenth century during the reigns of Vajiravudh's predecessors Mongkut (Rama IV) and Chulalongkorn (Rama V), whose reforms in response to colonial pressures resulted in the reconceptualization of the kingdom as a modern polity. Vajiravudh, through his numerous writings, promoted nationalism as a distinct ideology, employing historical narratives written by Prince Damrong Rajanubhab and popularizing his views of patriotism. He ascribed the country to a trinity of "nation-religion-monarchy", concepts represented in the national flag adopted in 1917. The Thai nation, in hi ...
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Nationalism
Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people),Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity, 2010. pp. 9, 25–30; especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power (popular sovereignty). It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity, based on shared social characteristics of culture, ethnicity, geographic location, language, politics (or the government), religion, traditions and belief in a shared singular history, and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional cultures and cultural revivals have been associated with na ...
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Sarit Thanarat
Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat (also spelt ''Dhanarajata''; th|สฤษดิ์ ธนะรัชต์, ; 16 June 1908 – 8 December 1963) was a Thai general who staged a coup in 1957, replacing Plaek Phibunsongkhram as Thailand's prime minister until Sarit died in 1963. He was born in Bangkok, but grew up in his mother's home town in Lao-speaking northeastern Thailand and considered himself from Isan. His father, Major Luang Ruangdetanan (birth name Thongdi Thanarat), was a career army officer best known for his translations into Thai of Cambodian literature.Gale, T. 2005. Encyclopedia of World Biographies. He had partial Chinese ancestry. Military career Sarit Thanarat was educated at a monastery school, and entered Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy in 1919, not completing his military studies until 1928, after which he was commissioned as a second lieutenant. During World War II he served as commander of an infantry battalion and took part in the invasion and occupation ...
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Communist Insurgency In Thailand
The communist insurgency in Thailand was a guerrilla war lasting from 1965 until 1983, fought mainly by the Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) and the government of Thailand. The war declined in 1980 following the declaration of an amnesty and by 1983 the CPT had abandoned the insurgency. Background In 1927, Chinese communist Han Minghuang attempted to create a communist organization in Bangkok before being arrested. Ho Chi Minh visited north Thailand the following year, attempting to organize soviets in local Vietnamese communities. In the aftermath of the Siamese revolution of 1932, conservative Prime Minister Phraya Manopakorn accused his political opponent, Pridi Panomyong, of being a communist and shortly afterwards a law was passed criminalising communism. During World War II communists formed an alliance with the Free Thai Movement. In 1946, Pridi Panomyong assumed office, repealing the Anti-Communist Act of 1933 and establishing diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. In ...
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1941
Events Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January * January–August – In the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program, 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are asphyxiated with carbon monoxide in a gas chamber, at Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Germany. * January 1 – Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January 1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year (thus the previous year that began April 1 had only 9 months). * January 3 – A decree (''Normalschrifterlass'') promulgated in Germany by Martin Bormann, on behalf of Adolf Hitler, requires replacement of blackletter typefaces by Antiqua. * January 4 – The short subject ''Elmer's Pet Rabbit'' is released, marking the second appearance of Bugs Bunny, and also the first to have his name on a title card. * January 5 – WWII: Battle of Bardia in Libya: Australian and British troops defeat Italian fo ...
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Battle Of Ko Chang
The Battle of Ko Chang took place on 17 January 1941 during the Franco-Thai War in which a flotilla of French warships attacked a smaller force of Thai vessels, including a coastal defence ship. The battle resulted in a tactical victory by the French Navy over the Royal Thai Navy although the strategic result is disputed. The Japanese intervened diplomatically and mediated a ceasefire. In the end, two Thai ships were sunk and one was heavily damaged. Within a month of the engagement, the French and the Thais negotiated a peace which ended the war. Background Situation The Franco-Thai War was going quite poorly for the French land forces, who were ill-equipped to deal with the larger Thai Army. The French Governor General of Indochina and Commander-in-Chief Naval Forces, Admiral Jean Decoux, decided Indochina's best chance at stopping the incursions would be attempt a naval attack on the Thailand's fleet and coastal cities. This would clear the way for bombardment missions to sup ...
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Vietnam War
{{Infobox military conflict | conflict = Vietnam War{{native name|vi|Chiến tranh Việt Nam | partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War | image = File:VNWarMontage.png | image_size = 300px | caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive, two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, and burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre. | date = 1 November 1955 – {{End date|df=yes|1975|4|30({{Age in years, months, weeks and days|month1=11|day1=1|year1=1955|month2=04|day2=30|year2=1975){{refn|Due to the early presence of U.S. troops in Vietnam the start date of the Vietnam War is a matter of debate. In 1998, after a high level review by the Department of Defense (DoD) and through the efforts of Richard B. ...
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Battle Of Pork Chop Hill
The Battle of Pork Chop Hill comprises a pair of related Korean War infantry battles during April and July 1953. These were fought while the United Nations Command (UN) and the Chinese and North Koreans negotiated the Korean Armistice Agreement. In the U.S., they were controversial because of the many soldiers killed for terrain of no strategic or tactical value, although the Chinese lost many times the number of US soldiers killed and wounded. The first battle was described in the eponymous history '' Pork Chop Hill: The American Fighting Man in Action, Korea, Spring 1953'', by S.L.A. Marshall, from which the film ''Pork Chop Hill'' was drawn. The UN won the first battle but the Chinese won the second battle. The UN, primarily supported by the United States, won the first battle when the Chinese broke contact and withdrew after two days of fighting. The second battle involved many more troops on both sides and was bitterly contested for five days before UN forces conceded the hil ...
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Fine Arts Department
The Fine Arts Department ( th|กรมศิลปากร, ) is a government department of Thailand, under the Ministry of Culture. Its mission is managing the country's cultural heritage. History The department was originally established by King Vajiravudh in 1912, split off from the Palace's Religious Affairs Office, and was primarily concerned with protecting Buddhist monuments. In 1926, during the reign of King Prajadhipok, the department was merged into the Royal Society, along with the Museum Department and Archaeology Department, in effect consolidating several cultural heritage-related agencies. In 1933, following the abolition of absolute monarchy, the Royal Society's archaeological arm was split off and re-established as the Fine Arts Department under the Ministry of Education (then known as the Ministry of Public Instruction). It became part of the Ministry of Culture from 1952 until 1957 (when the ministry was dissolved), and again in 2002 when the ministry was re-e ...
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Prayut Chan-o-cha
Prayut Chan-o-cha (sometimes spelled Prayuth Chan-ocha; th|ประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชา, ; born 21 March 1954) is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army general officer serving as Prime Minister of Thailand since 2014 and Minister of Defence since 2019. Prayut served as chief of the Thai army from 2010 to 2014 and was the leader of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), the military junta which governed Thailand between 22 May 2014 and 10 July 2019. After his appointment as army chief in 2010, Prayut was characterised as a royalist and an opponent of former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Considered a hardliner within the military, he was one of the leading proponents of military crackdowns on the Red Shirt demonstrations of April 2009 and April–May 2010. He later sought to moderate his profile, talking to relatives of protesters who were killed in the bloody conflict, and co-operating with the government of Yingluck Shinawatra who w ...
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Future Forward Party
) Campaign slogan: Elevated and Equal Thailand ( th|ไทย 2 เท่า) | website = | country = Thailand The Future Forward Party (FFP) ( th|พรรคอนาคตใหม่, , ; literally 'New Future Party') was a political party in Thailand founded in March 2018 by Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit, former vice president of Thai Summit Group, and Piyabutr Saengkanokkul, a legal scholar. It was founded on a progressive platform that sought to restrain the military's power in Thai politics, decentralize the bureaucracy, and improve social and economic equality. The party was dissolved by the Constitutional Court on 21 February 2020. History In September 2018, the Future Forward Party was officially recognized by the Election Commission, allowing the party to start registering members and solicit funding. In the 2019 election, the party won 30 constituency seats in parliament and 50 party-list MPs, including Thanathorn and Piyabutr, a result significantly better than had ...
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Thai Exceptionalism
Thai exceptionalism is the belief that Thailand is an exceptional country with an exceptional culture. This view is held by many Thais, particularly the elite. Among unique ideas held are that Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to be colonized, its perceived elaborate, refined, and esteemed system of monarchy, and its minimal dependence on imported food. Other exceptional claims relate to complexity of naming systems and Thai language and to the assumption that violence is rare despite numerous coups d'état and a long list of massacres. Thai expectionalism can also be framed negatively. For example, Thailand is a nation of lawbreakers according to Mechai Viravaidya. Historical context Thailand is the only nation to successfully resist colonialism in Southeast Asia. This is typically presented as a heroic tale of the Chakri Dynasty. Thailand is the tenth most visited country in the world, which has been claimed by government as proof that Thailand has a unique cultu ...
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National Council For Peace And Order
) | royal_anthem = ''Sansoen Phra Barami''( en|"Glorify His prestige") | image_map = | map_caption = | capital = Bangkok | coordinates = | largest_city = Bangkok | official_languages = ThaiThailand
''The World Factbook''.
|languages_type = Spoken languages |languages = | ethnic_groups = |ethnic_groups_ref = | demonym = Thai
Siamese (historic) | government_type = Unitary
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Bhumibol Adulyadej
Bhumibol Adulyadej ( th|ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; ; ; 5 December 192713 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987 (officially conferred by King Vajiralongkorn in 2019), was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty, titled Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946, he was the world's longest-reigning current head of state from the death of Emperor Hirohito of Japan in 1989 until his own death in 2016, and is both the second-longest reigning monarch of all time and the longest-reigning monarch to have reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years and 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha. ''Forbes'' estimated Bhumibol's fortune – including property and investments managed by the Crown Property Bureau, a body that is neither private nor government-owned (assets managed by the Bureau were owned by the crown as an institution, ...
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Monarchy Of Thailand
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically, King of Siam; th|พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The king currently resides in quarantine at the Grand Hotel Sonnenbichl in Germ ...
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Cold War
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies, the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc, after World War II. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but the period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine (12 March 1947) to the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union (26 December 1991). The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by the two powers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in 1945. The doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD) discouraged a pre-emptive attack by either side. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such ...
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