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Spanish Judiciary
The Judiciary of Spain consists of Courts and Tribunals, composed of judges and magistrates (Justices), who have the power to administer justice in the name of the King of Spain. Law The Spanish legal system is a civil law system based on comprehensive legal codes and laws rooted in Roman law, as opposed to common law, which is based on precedent court rulings. Operation of the Spanish judiciary is regulated by Organic Law 6/1985 of the Judiciary Power, Law 1/2000 of Civil Judgement, Law of September 14 1882 on Criminal Judgement, Law 29/1998 of Administrative Jurisdiction, Royal Legislative Decree 2/1995, which rewrote the Law of Labour Procedure, and Organic Law 2/1989 that regulates Military Criminal Procedure. Constitutional principles The Spanish Constitution guarantees respect for the essential principles necessary for the correct functioning of the judiciary: *Impartiality: to guarantee the assured effective judicial trusteeship to all citizens by the Constitution, ...
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Court
A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, and the building as a courthouse; court facilities range from simple and very small facilities in rural communities to large buildings in cities. The practical authority given to the court is known as its juris ...
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Constitutional Court Of Spain
The Constitutional Court ( es|Tribunal Constitucional) is the supreme interpreter of the Spanish Constitution, with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes made by any public body, central, regional, or local in Spain. It is defined in Part IX (sections 159 through 165) of the Constitution of Spain, and further governed by Organic Laws 2/1979 (Law of the Constitutional Court of 3 October 1979), 8/1984, 4/1985, 6/1988, 7/1999 and 1/2000. The court is the "supreme interpreter" of the Constitution, but since the court is not a part of the Spanish Judiciary, the Supreme Court is the highest court for all judicial matters. Powers The Constitutional Court is authorized to rule on the constitutionality of laws, acts, or regulations set forth by the national or the regional parliaments. It also may rule on the constitutionality of international treaties before they are ratified, if requested to do so by the Government, the Congress of Deputies, or the Senate. T ...
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General Council Of The Judicial Power Of Spain
The General Council of the Judiciary (GCJ) ( es|Consejo General del Poder Judicial, (CGPJ) is the national council of the judiciary of Spain. It is the constitutional body that governs all the Judiciary of Spain, such as courts, and judges, as it is established by the Spanish Constitution of 1978, article 122 and developed by the Organic Law 6/1985 of the Judicial Power (LOPJ). The President of the CGJP is also the president of the Supreme Court. Constitutional nature The Constitution of 1978 regulates the General Council of the Judiciary in paragraphs 2 and 3 of the section 122. This means that, the Constitution only detail the way of election of the eight members of the GCJ that they will be chosen between the most renowned jurists. It requires a minimum of 15 years of experience. Four of them must to be chosen by the Congress and the other four by the Senate. Both case requires a majority of three fourths of the members of every Chamber to be elected member of the GCJ. Ot ...
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Sede Del C
Sedie (also known as Sedie Giyorgis) is a town and woreda in west-central Ethiopia. Located in the Misraq Gojjam Zone of the Amhara Region, it has a latitude and longitude of and an elevation of 2555 meters above sea level. The town was organized in the 1930s. Sedie woreda features four high school (in 2011 E.C), and 3 clinic (''tena tabia''). Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, this town has an estimated total population of 2,309, of whom 1,013 are men and 1,296 are women. The 1994 national census reported a total population for Sede of 1,345 in 408 households, of whom 533 were men and 812 were women. The majority of the inhabitants practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 94.6% reporting that as their religion, while 5.4% were Muslim.
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Trade Unions
A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply called a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers. Trade unions typically fund the formal organization, head office, and legal team functions of the trade union through regular fees or union dues. The delegate staff of the trade union representation in the workforce are made up of workplace volunteers who are appointed by members in democratic elections. The trade union, through an elected leadership and bargaining committee, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common pur ...
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Legal Education
Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law. It may be undertaken for several reasons, including to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for admission to legal practice in a particular jurisdiction, to provide a greater breadth of knowledge to those working in other professions such as politics or business, to provide current lawyers with advanced training or greater specialisation, or to update lawyers on recent developments in the law. Legal education can take the form of a variety of programs, including: * Primary degrees in law, which may be studied at either undergraduate or graduate level depending on the country. * Advanced academic degrees in law, such as masters and doctoral degrees. * Practice or training courses, which prospective lawyers are required to pass in some countries before they may enter practice. * Applied or specialised law accreditation, which are less formal than degree programs but which provide ...
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Bachelor's Degree
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting five to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline). The two most common bachelor's degrees are the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science (BS or BSc). In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate educations after a first degree has been completed, although more commonly the successful completion of a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for further courses such as a master's or a doctorate. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework (sometimes two levels where non-honours and honours bachelor's degrees are considered separately), although some qualifications titled bachelor's degr ...
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High Court Of Justice Of Castile And León
The High Court of Justice of Castile and León ( es|Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Castilla y León), is the superior and appelate court of the Judicial Power of Spain in the territory of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon notwithstanding its original jurisdiction in some cases, and the jurisdiction of the Supreme court. Located in Burgos, the court is divided into the Civil, Criminal, Administrative ( es|Contencioso-Administrativo) and Labour (Social) chambers. The High Court is also tasked with the resolution of jurisdictional conflicts between the courts in Castile and León. The court was established by article 26 of the Organic Law of Judiciary of 1985. The President of this court is appointed by the General Council of the Judiciary for a five year term. The president of the High Court of Justice of Castile and León is José Luis Concepción Rodríguez. Courthouse In July 1871 an agreement was reached to erect a building to be the seat of the then Territorial ...
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High Court Of Justice Of Cantabria
The High Court of Justice of Cantabria (TSJC), is the highest court of the Spanish judiciary in the Autonomous Community of Cantabria. Established pursuant to Title VIII of the Spanish Constitution, it has original jurisdiction over cases against high-ranking officials of the autonomous community and appellate jurisdiction over all cases. The TSJC decisions may be appealed to the Supreme Court. It also has entrusted the resolution of conflicts of competence between courts in Cantabria. The Court has the power of judicial review over norms with lower rank than the law of the regional administrations. As set in the Judicary Organic Act of 1985, the Court consists of the President of the High Court of Justice, the Chairpersons of the Chambers and an undetermined number of Magistrates. The President has the rank of Magistrate of the Supreme Court and chairs over the Civil and Criminal Law Chamber. He or she is nominated by the General Council of the Judiciary for a tenure of five years. ...
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Francoist Spain
Francoist Spain ( es|España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship ( es|dictadura franquista), was the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain with the title ''Caudillo''. After his death in 1975, Spain transitioned into a democracy. During this time period Spain was officially known as the Spanish State ( es|Estado Español). The nature of the regime evolved and changed during its existence. Months after the start of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936, Franco emerged as the dominant rebel military leader and was proclaimed head of state on 1 October 1936, ruling a dictatorship over the territory controlled by the Nationalist faction. The 1937 Unification Decree, which merged all parties supporting the rebel side, led to Nationalist Spain becoming a single-party regime under the FET y de las JONS. The end of the war in 1939 brought the extension of the Franco rule to the whole country and the exile of Republican inst ...
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Counterfeiting
Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than the real thing. Counterfeit products are fakes or unauthorized replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. The word ''counterfeit'' frequently describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of items such as clothing, handbags, shoes, pharmaceuticals, automobile parts, unapproved aircraft parts (which have caused many accidents), watches, electronics (both parts and finished products), software, works of art, toys, and movies. Counterfeit products tend to have fake com ...
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Organized Crime
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may often be deemed organized crime groups or, under stricter definitions of organized crime, may become disciplined enough to be considered ''organized''. A criminal organization or gang can also be referred to as a mafia, mob, ring, or syndicate; the network, subculture, and community of criminals may be referred to as the underworld. Sociologists define a “mafia” as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi-law enforcement. Work on the original “Mafia”, the Sicilian Mafia, which predates the other groups, gene ...
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Terrorism
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but became widely used internationally and gained worldwide attention in the 1970s during the conflicts of Northern Ireland, the Basque Country, and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001. There are various different definitions of terrorism, with no universal agreement about it. Terrorism is a charged term. It is often used with the connotation of something that is "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups use the term to abuse or denounce opposing groups. Varied ...
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Spanish Crown
| coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg | coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain | image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg | incumbent = Felipe VI | incumbentsince = 19 June 2014 | his/her = His | heir_presumptive = Leonor, Princess of Asturias | first_monarch = Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (Catholic Monarchs of Spain) | date = | appointer = Hereditary | residence = Royal Palace of Madrid (official)Palace of Zarzuela (private) | website The Spanish Monarchy The Monarchy of Spain ( es|Monarquía Española), constitutionally referred to as The Crown ( es|La Corona), is a constitutional institution and the highest office of Spain. The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch, his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his dutie ...
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Audiencia Nacional Of Spain
The Audiencia Nacional (; en|National Court) is a centralised court in Spain with jurisdiction over all of the Spanish territory. It is specialised in a certain scope of delinquency, having original jurisdiction over major crimes such as those committed against the Crown and its members, terrorism, forgery of currency, credit and debit cards and checks, some trade crimes committed in more than one region and over drug trafficking, food frauds and medical frauds committed in a nationwide level as well as over international crimes which come under the competence of Spanish courts.LOPJ § 65. It has also appellate jurisdiction over the cases of the Criminal Chamber of the National CourtLOPJ § 64. The Audiencia Nacional was created in 1977 at the same time as the Public Order Court (''Tribunal de Orden Público''), an exceptional court created in Francoist Spain, ceased to exist. Most of the rulings of the National Court can ultimately be appealed before the Supreme Court (''Tribunal ...
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