Sobibor Trial
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Sobibor Trial
The Sobibor trial was a 1965–66 judicial trial in the West German prosecution of SS officers who had worked at Sobibor extermination camp; it was held in Hagen. It was one of a series of similar war crime trials held during the early and mid-1960s, such as the Eichmann trial, 1961 trial of Adolf Eichmann by Israel in Jerusalem, and the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials of 1963–65, also held in West Germany. These trials heightened general public and international understanding of the extent of the crimes that had been perpetrated in occupied Poland some twenty years earlier by Nazi bureaucrats and persons acting as their executioners. The Soviet Union conducted trials in the 1960s of former Trawniki men, mostly Ukrainian Soviet Prisoners of war, POWs who had trained for the Nazis and worked at Sobibor. Most were convicted and executed. In these and subsequent years, separate trials prosecuted personnel of the Bełżec extermination camp, Belzec (1963–65), Treblinka extermination cam ...
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Hagen
Hagen () is the 41st-largest city in Germany. The municipality is located in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located on the south eastern edge of the Ruhr area, 15 km south of Dortmund, where the rivers Lenne and Volme (met by the river Ennepe) meet the river Ruhr. As of 31 December 2010, the population was 188,529. The city is home to the FernUniversität Hagen, which is the only state-funded distance education university in Germany. Counting more than 67,000 students (March 2010), it is the largest university in Germany. History Hagen was first mentioned around the year 1200, and is presumed to have been the name of a farm at the confluence of the Volme and the Ennepe rivers. After the conquest of in 1324, Hagen passed to the County of Mark. In 1614 it was awarded to the Margraviate of Brandenburg, according to the Treaty of Xanten. In 1701 it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia in the Fourth Coalition, Hagen was incorporat ...
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Action T4
(German, ) was a campaign of mass murder by involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany. The term was first used in post- war trials against doctors who had been involved in the killings. The name T4 is an abbreviation of 4, a street address of the Chancellery department set up in early 1940, in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, which recruited and paid personnel associated with Aktion T4. Certain German physicians were authorised to select patients "deemed incurably sick, after most critical medical examination" and then administer to them a "mercy death" (). In October 1939, Adolf Hitler signed a "euthanasia note", backdated to 1 September 1939, which authorised his physician Karl Brandt and ''Reichsleiter'' Philipp Bouhler to begin the killing. The killings took place from September 1939 until the end of the war in 1945; from 275,000 to 300,000 people were killed in psychiatric hospitals in Germany and Austria, occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ( ...
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NFCC
The PFF National Challenge Cup is an annual semi-professional Single-elimination tournament, knockout association football, football competition in men's domestic Football in Pakistan, Pakistani football within the Pakistan football league system. It is organized by and named after the Pakistan Football Federation. Khan Research Laboratories F.C., Khan Research Laboratories have won the most titles (six). WAPDA F.C., WAPDA are the current champions, winning the 2020 PFF National Challenge Cup, 2020 edition courtesy of a 1-0 win against SSGC F.C. in the final. Background Although it is an annual competition, it has not been held on a few occasions. The competition was not held from (1980–83, 1986, 1988–89, 1995, 1997, 2004, 2006–07, 2017, 2021–22). The tournament has seen various name changes throughout its establishment. Names Finals ;Wins by club Results by team Since its establishment, the National Challenge Cup has been won by 15 different teams. Teams shown in ...
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Christian Wirth
), Christian the CruelZenter, Christian and Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). '' Encyclopedia of the Third Reich'' (pg. 1053), New York: Macmillan; , allegiance = , branch = Schutzstaffel , serviceyears = , rank = Sturmbannführer (Major) , servicenumber = NSDAP #420,383 SS #354,464 , unit = SS-Totenkopfverbände , commands = Action T4Inspector of Operation Reinhard camps Bełżec, December 1941 — end of August 1942 , awards = Christian Wirth (; 24 November 1885 – 26 May 1944) was a German SS officer and leading Holocaust perpetrator who was one of the primary architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland, known as Operation Reinhard. His nicknames included Christian the Cruel (german: Christian der Grausame), Stuka, and The Wild Christian due to the extremity of his behaviour among the SS and Trawniki guards and to the camp inmates and victims. Wirth worked within the Action T4 program, in which people with disabilities were murd ...
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Jules Schelvis
Jules Schelvis (7 January 1921 – 3 April 2016) was a Dutch Jewish historian, writer, printer, and Holocaust survivor. Schelvis was the sole survivor among the 3,005 people on the 14th transport from Westerbork to Sobibor extermination camp, having been selected to work at nearby Dorohucza labour camp. He is known for his memoirs and historical research about Sobibor, for which he earned an honorary doctorate from the University of Amsterdam, Officier in the Order of Orange-Nassau, and Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. Schelvis was born in Amsterdam, part of a secular Jewish family. After high school, he trained as a printer and worked for Printing Office Lindenbaum in Amsterdam. Once the German occupation began, Schelvis was fired for being Jewish. He subsequently worked at various newspapers and participated in a local youth labour organization, where he met and courted a woman named Rachel Borzykowski. Schelvis grew close to Borzykowski and her family, whose residen ...
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Wolfgang Scheffler (historian)
Dr Wolfgang Scheffler (22 July 1929, in Leipzig – 18 November 2008, in Berlin) was a graduate and later, Professor of Political Science and History at the Free University of Berlin.Inauthor:"Wolfgang Scheffler"
Google Books. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
In the 1960s, he was engaged in massive research of the National Socialist policy toward the Jews in unpublished archival material, on behalf of (DFG). He was a member of the German delegation at the
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Franz Wolf (SS Officer)
'' SS-Oberscharführer'' Franz Wolf (9 April 1907–9 October 1999) was a German Nazi senior squad leader serving with the Action T4 forced euthanasia program, and later, at the Sobibór extermination camp in occupied Poland during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, codenamed Operation Reinhard. Leading a normal life in West Germany for the next twenty years, along with thousands of war criminals protected by Konrad Adenauer, Wolf was arrested in 1964, and indicted during the Sobibór trial with participating in the murder of 115,000 Jews. On 20 December 1966, the court in Hagen sentenced him to eight years in prison for taking part in the mass murder of "at least 39,000 Jews". Wolf was not an SS-Officer, nor was he a member of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, which ceased to exist as a unit in 1940. The men of the extermination camp were under the command of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). The guards in regular KZ/KL was under the command of SS-WVHA Amt D, which also was part of the ...
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Göttingen
Göttingen (, , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, central Germany, the capital of the eponymous district. The River Leine runs through it. At the end of 2019, the population was 118,911. General information The origins of Göttingen lay in a village called ''Gutingi, ''first mentioned in a document in 953 AD. The city was founded northwest of this village, between 1150 and 1200 AD, and adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of the Hanseatic League and hence a wealthy town. Today, Göttingen is famous for its old university (''Georgia Augusta'', or "Georg-August-Universität"), which was founded in 1734 (first classes in 1737) and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837, seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover; they lost their positions, but became known as the " Göttingen Seven". Its alumni include some well-known historical figures: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald ...
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Karl Frenzel
Karl August Wilhelm Frenzel
(20 August 1911 – 2 September 1996) was an SS noncommissioned officer in . After the , he was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for war crimes, but he was ultimately released after serving 16 years in prison.


Early life

Frenzel was born in ,

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Hamburg
(male), (female) en, Hamburger(s), Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Postal code(s) , postal_code = 20001–21149, 22001–22769 , area_code_type = Area code(s) , area_code = 040 , registration_plate = , blank_name_sec1 = GRP (nominal) , blank_info_sec1 = €123 billion (2019) , blank1_name_sec1 = GRP per capita , blank1_info_sec1 = €67,000 (2019) , blank1_name_sec2 = HDI (2018) , blank1_info_sec2 = 0.976 · 1st of 16 , iso_code = DE-HH , blank_name_sec2 = NUTS Region , blank_info_sec2 = DE6 , website = , footnotes ...
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Kurt Bolender
Heinz Kurt Bolender (21 May 1912 – 10 October 1966) was an SS sergeant during the Nazi era. In 1942, he operated the gas chambers at Sobibór extermination camp, perpetrating acts of genocide against Jews and Romani people during Operation Reinhard. After the war, Bolender was recognized in 1961 while working under a false identity as a doorman at a nightclub in West Germany, and subsequently accused in 1965 of personally murdering at least 360 Jewish inmates and assisting in the murder of 86,000 more at Sobibór. He committed suicide in prison two months prior to the end of the trial. Biography Bolender was born in 1912 in Duisburg and stayed in school until the age of 16 when he became a blacksmith apprentice. Yitzhak Arad. ''Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka – The Operation Reinhard Camps'', p. 193. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1987, . He joined the NSDAP in 1930. In 1939, he joined the ''SS-Totenkopfverbände'' ("Death's Head Unit"). He was attached to the Ac ...
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