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Silent Coup (Thailand)
Thailand's Silent Coup of 29 November 1951, otherwise known as the Radio Coup, consolidated the military's hold on the country. It reinstated the 1932 constitution, which effectively eliminated the Senate, established a unicameral legislature composed equally of elected and government-appointed members, and allowed serving military officers to supplement their commands with important ministerial portfolios. Prelude to the coup Having defeated the navy in the Manhattan Rebellion, the army-led Coup Group turned its attentions toward the remaining civilians in government. Although the military was in control of the army, politicians and legislators continued to annoy the generals. Throughout 1950 and the following year, the civilians and military men bickered over spoils and offices, and, despite its monopoly on the use of force, the Coup Group lost some political battles. In January 1951 the civilian parties forced the prime minister, Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Phibun), to ...
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Royal Thai Navy
The Royal Thai Navy (Abrv: RTN, ทร.; th|กองทัพเรือไทย, ), Thailand's naval warfare force, was established in 1906. It was modernised by the Admiral Prince Abhakara Kiartiwongse (1880–1923) who is known as the father of the Royal Navy. It has a structure that includes the naval fleet, Royal Thai Marine Corps, and Air and Coastal Defence Command. The RTN headquarters is at Sattahip Naval Base. The navy operates three naval area commands (NAC): Northern Gulf of Thailand (First NAC); Southern Gulf of Thailand (Second NAC); and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) (Third NAC). RTN also has two air wings and one flying unit on its aircraft carrier. History Ancient era The military history of Thailand encompasses 1,000 years of armed struggle, from wars of independence from the Khmer Empire through to struggles with her regional rivals, Burma and Vietnam, and periods of conflict with Britain and France during the colonial era. The naval arm of the army ...
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Sarit Dhanarajata
Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat (also spelt ''Dhanarajata''; th|สฤษดิ์ ธนะรัชต์, ; 16 June 1908 – 8 December 1963) was a Thai general who staged a coup in 1957, replacing Plaek Phibunsongkhram as Thailand's prime minister until Sarit died in 1963. He was born in Bangkok, but grew up in his mother's home town in Lao-speaking northeastern Thailand and considered himself from Isan. His father, Major Luang Ruangdetanan (birth name Thongdi Thanarat), was a career army officer best known for his translations into Thai of Cambodian literature.Gale, T. 2005. Encyclopedia of World Biographies. He had partial Chinese ancestry. Military career Sarit Thanarat was educated at a monastery school, and entered Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy in 1919, not completing his military studies until 1928, after which he was commissioned as a second lieutenant. During World War II he served as commander of an infantry battalion and took part in the invasion and occupation ...
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20th Century In Thailand
Th or TH may refer to: Language * Eth (ð), a letter used in Old English, Icelandic, Faroese and Elfdalian * Th (digraph), a digraph in the Roman alphabet ** Pronunciation of English th aspects of this digraph in English ** Voiced dental fricative , a type of consonantal sound in some languages ** Voiceless dental fricative , a type of consonantal sound in some languages * Thai language (ISO 639 code), the national and official language of Thailand * Thorn (letter) (þ), a letter in Old Norse, Old English, and related languages * - th, the most common ordinal number suffix in English (in some style guides rendered th) Science and technology Biology and medicine * T helper cell Th, in the immune system * Terminologia Histologica, an international standard for nomenclature in cytology and histology * Thyroid hormones, in the endocrine system * Tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme Units of measurement * Thomson (unit) (Th) in mass spectrometry * Thermie (th), metric unit of heat ene ...
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Conflicts In 1951
Conflict may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Conflict'' (1936 film), an American boxing film starring John Wayne * ''Conflict'' (1938 film), a French drama film directed by Léonide Moguy * ''Conflict'' (1945 film), an American suspense film starring Humphrey Bogart * ''Catholics: A Fable'' (1973 film), or ''The Conflict'', a film starring Martin Sheen * ''Judith'' (1966 film) or ''Conflict'', a film starring Sophia Loren * ''Samar'' (1999 film) or ''Conflict'', a 1999 Indian film by Shyam Benegal Games * ''Conflict'' (series), a 2002–2008 series of war games for the PS2, Xbox, and PC * ''Conflict'' (video game), a 1989 Nintendo Entertainment System war game * ''Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator'', a 1990 strategy computer game Literature and periodicals * ''Conflict'' (novel), a 1934 novel by E.V. Timms *''Conflict'', an underground art fanzine by Gerard Cosloy * ''Conflict'', an adventure pulp magazine from 1933 to 1934 that published a story ...
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Military Coups In Thailand
A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform. It may consist of one or more military branches such as an army, navy, air force, space force, marines, or coast guard. The main task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. In broad usage, the terms ''armed forces'' and ''military'' are often treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces, not belonging to a recognized state; though they share many attributes with regular military forces, they are less often referred to as simply ''military''. A nation's milit ...
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Rebellions In Thailand
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and then manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion can be individual or collective, peaceful (civil disobedience, civil resistance, and nonviolent resistance) or violent (terrorism, sabotage and guerrilla warfare). In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims. If rebellion generally seeks to evade and/or gain concessions from an oppressive power, a revolt seeks to overthrow and destroy that power, as well as its accompanying laws. The goal of rebellion is resistance while a revolt seeks a revolution. As power shifts relative to the external adversary, or power shifts within a mixed coalition, or positions harden or soften on either ...
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Lausanne
|neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), Froideville, Jouxtens-Mézery, Le Mont-sur-Lausanne, Lugrin (FR-74), Maxilly-sur-Léman (FR-74), Montpreveyres, Morrens, Neuvecelle (FR-74), Prilly, Pully, Renens, Romanel-sur-Lausanne, Saint-Sulpice, Savigny |twintowns = Lausanne (, also , , ; frp|Losena ; it|Losanna; rm|Losanna) is the capital city and biggest town of the canton of Vaud in Romandy, Switzerland. A municipality, it is situated on the shores of Lake Léman (french: link=no|Le/Lac Léman). It faces the French town of , with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located northeast of Geneva. The municipality Lausanne has a population of about 140,000, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having about 420,000 inhabitants (as of January 2019). The metropolitan area of Lausanne ...
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Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee
Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee ( th|ฟื้น รณนภากาศ ฤทธาคนี) (21 February 1900 – 8 July 1987) was a Royal Thai Air Force officer who served as the Commander of the Royal Thai Air Force from 1949 to 1957. In July 1951, Ritthakhanee became Minister of Transport and in 1955 he was elevated to the position of Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand. Relinquishing the Deputy Prime Ministership in 1957, he briefly served as Minister of Health that year. In 1947 he was one of the group of senior officers who planned and carried out the Siamese coup d'état. On 13 December 1949 Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee took over as Commander of the Royal Thai Air Force, replacing Air Marshal Luang Tevaritpunluok. He continued in the Air Force's senior post until 1957. In 1953, Air Chief Marshal Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee founded the Royal Thai Air Force Academy, albeit on a temporary basis. Four years later in 1957, Fuen Ro ...
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Phin Choonhavan
Field Marshal Phin Choonhavan ( th|ผิน ชุณหะวัณ; ; August 14 1891- 26 January 1973) was a Thai military leader and Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand. Phin was a leader of several coups against the government, most notably the 1947 coup. During the Second World War, he commanded the Phayap Army's 3rd Division before being made military governor of the Shan States, which Thailand had occupied during the Burma Campaign. Phin was the son of a Chinese physician, Kai () who migrated to Siam from Chaoshan, as was the father of his wife, Lim Hong (), who was also an immigrant from Shantou. His son, Chatichai Choonhavan, became Prime Minister of Thailand. His daughter, Udomlak, married Phao Sriyanond, director general of the Thai police. Another daughter, Charoen, married Pramarn Adireksarn, who served as deputy prime minister in several governments. References * Paul M. Handley, "The King Never Smiles" Yale University Press: 2006, Phin Category:Field marshals of T ...
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Manhattan Rebellion
The Manhattan Rebellion ( th|กบฏแมนฮัตตัน) was a failed coup attempt by officers of the Royal Thai Navy against the government of Prime Minister Plaek Pibulsonggram (Phibun) on 29–30 June 1951. They took the prime minister hostage during a handover ceremony for the US dredge ''Manhattan'' and brought him aboard the Navy's flagship HTMS ''Sri Ayudhya''. However, they were met by the combined forces of the Royal Thai Army, Air Force and Police. Heavy fighting ensued, and ''Sri Ayudhya'' was sunk despite Phibun's presence on board; the prime minister had to swim ashore along with the ship's crew. The event led to the Navy being stripped of most of its power and influence. It also showed that political power actually lay with commanders of the Armed Forces rather than the prime minister. Events On 29 June 1951, a group of junior naval officers seized Phibun at gunpoint while he was attending the transfer ceremony of the US Navy dredge ''Manhattan'' to the Thai ...
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Sang Phathanothai
Sang Phathanothai (1915 – June, 1986) was a Thai politician, union leader, and journalist. He was one of the closest advisors to Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram. In his early 20s Sang began to write regularly on political and international subjects and became a daily commentator for the national radio station. He became famous thanks to his radio show ''Mr. Mun and Mr. Kong'' and soon was appointed the head of the radio and newspaper sections of the Thai Government Publicity Department. In 1938, shortly after becoming prime minister, Phibunsongkhram named Sang the official government spokesman and put him in charge of all government propaganda. It was in this capacity that when Thailand had to declare war against the Allies in World War II, Sang had the distinction of reading the formal declaration of war over the radio on January 25, 1942. When the war ended the Allies wanted to prosecute Sang, along with Phibunsongkhram and a few others, for war crimes. However, as Phibunson ...
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Bhumibol
Bhumibol Adulyadej ( th|ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; ; ; 5 December 192713 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987 (officially conferred by King Vajiralongkorn in 2019), was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty, titled Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946, he was the world's longest-reigning current head of state from the death of Emperor Hirohito of Japan in 1989 until his own death in 2016, and is both the second-longest reigning monarch of all time and the longest-reigning monarch to have reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years and 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha. ''Forbes'' estimated Bhumibol's fortune – including property and investments managed by the Crown Property Bureau, a body that is neither private nor government-owned (assets managed by the Bureau were owned by the crown as an institution, ...
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Switzerland
,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it|svizzero/svizzera or , rm|Svizzer/Svizra |government_type = Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent directorial republic |leader_title1 = Federal Council |leader_name1 = |leader_title2 = |leader_name2 = Walter Thurnherr |legislature = Federal Assembly |upper_house = Council of States |lower_house = National Council |sovereignty_type = History |established_event1 = Foundation date |established_date1 = The original date of the Rütlischwur was 1307 (reported by Aegidius Tschudi in the 16th century) and is just one among several comparable treaties between more or less the same parties during that period. The date of the Federal Charter of 1291 was selected in 1891 for the official celebration of the "Confederacy's 600th anniversary". (traditionally 1 August 1291) |established_event2 = Peace of Westphalia |established_date2 = 24 October 1648 |established_event3 = Restoration |established_date3 = 7 Augus ...
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Phao Sriyanond
Police General Phao Siyanon ( th|เผ่า ศรียานนท์, also spelled Sriyanond and Sriyanon; 1 March 1910 – 21 November 1960) was a director general of Thailand's national police who was notorious for his excesses against political opponents. He eventually fled the country and died in exile. Rise to power An ambitious army officer of Thai-Burmese ancestry, Phao married the daughter of General Phin Choonhavan. He took part in the 1947 coup d'état that ended the last of Pridi Phanomyong's attempts to create democracy in post-World War II Thailand, restoring disgraced Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram to power. Made deputy director of the police, Phao quickly staged a show trial of the alleged "assassins" of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII), in which three members of the palace staff were found guilty despite a lack of evidence and were eventually executed even though they had earlier been found innocent. Police terror Phao was promoted to the position of direct ...
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Plaek Phibunsongkhram
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram ( th|แปลก พิบูลสงคราม ; alternatively transcribed as ''Pibulsongkram'' or ''Pibulsonggram''; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Marshal P. ( th|จอมพล ป.;), contemporarily known as Phibun (''Pibul'') in the West, was a Thai military officer and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Thailand and dictator from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. Phibunsongkhram was a member of the Royal Siamese Army wing of Khana Ratsadon, the first political party in Thailand, and a leader of the Siamese revolution of 1932 transforming Thailand from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. Phibun became the third Prime Minister of Thailand in 1938 as Commander of the Royal Siamese Army, established a ''de facto'' military dictatorship inspired by the Italian anti-communist Benito Mussolini, promoted Thai nationalism and sinophobia, and allied Thailand with Imperial Japan in World War II. Phibun ...
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