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Second Treaty Of Saigon
The Treaty of Saigon was signed on 15 March 1874 by the Third French Republic and the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. The treaty was negotiated by Paul-Louis-Félix Philastre for France and Nguyễn Văn Tường for Vietnam, which in the treaty is called the Kingdom of Annam. In French circles, it was often called ''le traité Philastre''.Anna Irene Baka and Qi Fei"Lost in Translation in the Sino-French War in Vietnam: From Western International Law to Confucian Semantics: A Comparative–Critical Analysis of the Chinese, French, and American Archives" in Anthony Carty and Janne Nijman (eds.), ''Morality and Responsibility of Rulers: European and Chinese Origins of a Rule of Law as Justice for World Order'' (Oxford University Press, 2018), pp. 389–390. Following the Garnier Affair, in which a French force ostensibly aiding the Vietnamese government had wreaked havoc in Tonkin in December 1873, Philastre took control of the French expedition on 3 January 1874 and immediately began the ...
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Third French Republic
The French Third Republic (french: La Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace (keeping the Territoire de Belfort) and Lorraine (the northeastern part, i.e. present-day department of Moselle), social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but disagreement as to the nature of that monarchy and the rightful ...
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Qing Empire
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general ...
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Treaties Of The French Third Republic
A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other legal persons. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, only instruments that are legally binding upon the parties are considered treaties pursuant to, and governed by, international law. Treaties are roughly analogous to contracts, in that they establish the rights, duties, and binding obligations of the parties. They vary significantly in form, substance, and complexity, and may govern a wide variety of matters, such as territorial boundaries, trade and commerce, mutual defense, and more. Treaties establishing international institutions often serve as the constitution thereof, such as the Rome Statute of the Internat ...
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1874 Treaties
Events January–March * January – The Pangkor Treaty (also known as the Pangkor Engagement), by which the British extended their control over first the Sultanate of Perak, and later the other independent Malay States, is signed. * January 1 – New York City annexes The Bronx. * January 2 – Ignacio María González becomes head of state of the Dominican Republic for the first time. * January 3 – Third Carlist War – Battle of Caspe: Campaigning on the Ebro in Aragon for the Spanish Republican Government, Colonel Eulogio Despujol surprises a Carlist force under Manuel Marco de Bello at Caspe, northeast of Alcañiz. In a brilliant action the Carlists are routed, losing 200 prisoners and 80 horses, while Despujol is promoted to Brigadier and becomes Conde de Caspe. * January 23 **Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, marries Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Tsar Alexander III of Russia. **Camille ...
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19th Century In Vietnam
19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20. It is a prime number. Mathematics 19 is the 8th prime number, the seventh Mersenne prime exponent, and the second base-10 repunit prime exponent. 19 is the maximum number of fourth powers needed to sum up to any natural number, and in the context of Waring's problem, 19 is the fourth value of g(k). In addition, 19 is a Heegner number and a centered hexagonal number. 19 is also a centered triangular number, being the smallest such number that is also prime. Moreover, there exists only one nontrivial normal magic hexagon: the one composed of 19 cells. Science * 19 is the atomic number of potassium. * 19 years is very close to 235 lunations. See Metonic cycle. * COVID-19 is the shortened name of Coronavirus disease 2019, the cause of the global pandemic that began in 2019. Religion Islam * The number of angels guarding Hell ("Hellfire") ("Saqar") according to the Qur'an: ''"Over it are nineteen"'' (74:30), after ...
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1874 In France
Events from the year 1874 in France. Incumbents *President: Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta *President of the Council of Ministers: Albert, duc de Broglie (until 22 May), Ernest Courtot de Cissey (starting 22 May) Events * 15 March – France and the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam sign the Second Treaty of Saigon, further recognizing the full sovereignty of France over Cochinchina. Arts and literature * 23 January – Camille Saint-Saëns' composition ''Danse Macabre'' is premiered. * 25 April – Louis Leroy reviews the first Impressionist exhibition, held in Paris, and coins the term with reference to Claude Monet's ''Impression, Sunrise''. Births January to June * 21 January – René-Louis Baire, mathematician (died 1932) * 19 February – Rose Gelbert, golfer (died 1956) * 22 March – Jean Cau, rower. * 3 May – François Coty, perfume manufacturer (died 1934) * 14 May – Polaire (Emilie Marie Bouchaud), singer and actress (died 1939) July to December * 29 July – A ...
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1874 In Vietnam
Events January–March * January – The Pangkor Treaty (also known as the Pangkor Engagement), by which the British extended their control over first the Sultanate of Perak, and later the other independent Malay States, is signed. * January 1 – New York City annexes The Bronx. * January 2 – Ignacio María González becomes head of state of the Dominican Republic for the first time. * January 3 – Third Carlist War – Battle of Caspe: Campaigning on the Ebro in Aragon for the Spanish Republican Government, Colonel Eulogio Despujol surprises a Carlist force under Manuel Marco de Bello at Caspe, northeast of Alcañiz. In a brilliant action the Carlists are routed, losing 200 prisoners and 80 horses, while Despujol is promoted to Brigadier and becomes Conde de Caspe. * January 23 **Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, marries Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Tsar Alexander III of Russia. **Camille ...
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Black Flags
The Black Flag Army (; ) was a splinter remnant of a bandit group recruited largely from soldiers of ethnic Zhuang background, who crossed the border in 1865 from Guangxi, China into northern Vietnam, then during the Nguyen dynasty. Although brigands, they were known mainly for their fights against the invading French forces, who were then moving into Tonkin (northern Vietnam). The Black Flag Army is so named because of the preference of its commander, Liu Yongfu, for using black command flags. The army was officially disbanded in 1885 as a result of the Treaty of Tientsin between the French and the Qing. However, remnants of the army continued to wage a guerilla war against French colonial authorities for years. With the sanction of both Vietnamese and Chinese authorities, the Black Flags joined the Vietnamese irregular forces, stemming French encroachment beyond the Red River Delta. The rise and fall of the Black Flag Army In 1857, Liu Yongfu (Vietnamese: Lưu Vĩnh Phúc), a Ha ...
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Yunnan
Yunnan () is a landlocked province in the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders the Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan, autonomous regions of Guangxi, and Tibet as well as Southeast Asian countries: Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. Yunnan is China's fourth least developed province based on disposable income per capita in 2014. Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as . Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has perhaps 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead, zinc and tin ...
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Prince Gong
Yixin (11January 1833– 29May 1898), better known in English as PrinceKung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China. He was a regent of the empire from 1861 to 1865 and wielded great influence at other times as well. At a young age, Yixin was already noted for his brilliance and was once considered by his father the Daoguang Emperor as a potential heir. However, his older half-brother Yizhu eventually inherited the throne as the Xianfeng Emperor. During the Second Opium War in 1860, Prince Gong negotiated with the British, French and Russians, signing the Convention of Beijing on behalf of the Qing Empire. Following the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, Prince Gong launched the Xinyou Coup in 1861 with the aid of the Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi and seized power from a group of eight regents appointed by the Xianfeng Emperor on his deathbed to assist his young son and successor, the Tongzhi Empero ...
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Pierre-Paul De La Grandière
Pierre Paul Marie Benoît de La Grandière (28 June 1807 – 25 August 1876) was a French admiral who was Governor of the colony of Cochinchina from 1863 to 1868. He consolidated French control over Vietnam, and developed the city of Saigon as a major port. Early years (1807–40) The La Grandière family originated in Anjou and was involved in the navy from the 18th century. Pierre-Paul de La Grandière's grandfather, Charles Marie de La Grandière (1729–1812), fought in the American Revolutionary War, and during 64 years of service rose to the rank of Naval Commander in Brest. One of his uncles died on the ''Espérance'' while serving under Huon de Kermadec during the search for the lost expedition of Lapérouse. His father, Joseph Auguste Marie de La Grandière (1770–1845), emigrated in 1792 during the French Revolution, returned to the navy with the Bourbon Restoration and ended his career as a frigate captain in Lorient. His mother, Anne-Marie Chaillou de l'Étang (1780–1 ...
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Marie Jules Dupré
Marie-Jules Dupré (25 November 1813 – 8 February 1881) was a French admiral. He was governor of Réunion from 1865 to 1869 under the Second French Empire, and governor of Cochinchina from 1871 to 1874 under the French Third Republic. He negotiated a treaty with the Emperor of Vietnam that opened up the country to French commerce and ceded territory in the south to France. Life Early career (1813–54) Marie-Jules Dupré was born on 25 November 1813 in Albi, Tarn. His father was an army officer. He attended the École Navale and graduated in 1831 as a midshipman. In 1847 Dupré was promoted to lieutenant commander. He fought in the Antilles between 1848 and 1851. Commander and Admiral (1854–71) Dupré was promoted to commander in 1854. He fought in the Crimean War, then served in the expeditions to Syria and Saigon. In 1861 Dupré concluded a commercial treaty with Radama II, King of Madagascar. He was Governor of Réunion from 1864 to 1869. As governor of Réunion he was alw ...
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Protectorate
A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign state without being its direct possession. In exchange, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations depending on the terms of their arrangement. Usually protectorates are established de jure by a treaty. Under certain conditions as of Egypt under British rule (1882–1914) e.g., a state can also be labelled as a de facto protectorate or a "veiled protectorate". A protectorate is different from a colony as they have local rulers, are not directly possessed and rarely experience colonization by the suzerain state. However, some sources term a state that remains under the protection of another state while retaining its independence as a protected state, different from a protectorate, while other sources use the terms like synonym ...
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Suzerainty
Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy. The dominant state is called the "suzerain." Suzerainty differs from sovereignty in that the tributary state is technically independent, but enjoys only limited self-rule. Although the situation has existed in a number of historical empires, it is considered difficult to reconcile with 20th- or 21st-century concepts of international law, in which sovereignty is a binary which either exists or does not. While a sovereign state can agree by treaty to become a protectorate of a stronger power, modern international law does not recognise any way of making this relationship compulsory on the weaker power. Suzerainty is a practical, ''de facto'' situation, rather than a legal, ''de jure'' one. Imperial China Historically, the Emperor of China saw himself as the centre of the entire civilised worl ...
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Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. Irtysh is the chief tributary of the Ob river and is also the longest tributary river in the world with a length of . Madeira river is the largest tributary river by volume in the world. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream."opposite to a tributary"
PhysicalGeography.net, Michael Pidwirny & Scott Jones, 2009. Viewed 17 Septemb ...
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