Rank Correlation
In statistics, a rank correlation is any of several statistics that measure an ordinal association—the relationship between rankings of different ordinal variables or different rankings of the same variable, where a "ranking" is the assignment of the ordering labels "first", "second", "third", etc. to different observations of a particular variable. A rank correlation coefficient measures the degree of similarity between two rankings, and can be used to assess the significance of the relation between them. For example, two common nonparametric methods of significance that use rank correlation are the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Context If, for example, one variable is the identity of a college basketball program and another variable is the identity of a college football program, one could test for a relationship between the poll rankings of the two types of program: do colleges with a higherranked basketball program tend to have a higherranked f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistics
Statistics (from German language, German: ''wikt:Statistik#German, Statistik'', "description of a State (polity), state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of statistical survey, surveys and experimental design, experiments.Dodge, Y. (2006) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', Oxford University Press. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey sample (statistics), samples. Representative sampling as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or an expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression (including variables such as , and ). When the coefficients are themselves variables, they may also be called parameters. For example, the polynomial 2x^2x+3 has coefficients 2, −1, and 3, and the powers of the variable x in the polynomial ax^2+bx+c have coefficient parameters a, b, and c. The constant coefficient is the coefficient not attached to variables in an expression. For example, the constant coefficients of the expressions above are the number 3 and the parameter ''c'', respectively. The coefficient attached to the highest degree of the variable in a polynomial is referred to as the leading coefficient. For example, in the expressions above, the leading coefficients are 2 and ''a'', respectively. Terminology and definition In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Covariance And Correlation
In probability theory and statistics, the mathematical concepts of covariance and correlation are very similar. Both describe the degree to which two random variables or sets of random variables tend to deviate from their expected values in similar ways. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are two random variables, with means (expected values) ''μX'' and ''μY'' and standard deviations ''σX'' and ''σY'', respectively, then their covariance and correlation are as follows: : so that :\rho_ = \sigma_ / (\sigma_X \sigma_Y) where ''E'' is the expected value operator. Notably, correlation is dimensionless while covariance is in units obtained by multiplying the units of the two variables. If ''Y'' always takes on the same values as ''X'', we have the covariance of a variable with itself (i.e. \sigma_), which is called the variance and is more commonly denoted as \sigma_X^2, the square of the standard deviation. The ''correlation'' of a variable with itself is always 1 (except in the dege ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Psychometrika
''Psychometrika'' is the official journal of the Psychometric Society, a professional body devoted to psychometrics and quantitative psychology. The journal covers quantitative methods for measurement and evaluation of human behavior, including statistical methods and other mathematical techniques. Past editors include Marion Richardson, Dorothy Adkins, Norman Cliff, and Willem J. Heiser. According to ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal had a 2019 impact factor of 1.959. History In 1935 LL Thurstone, EL Thorndike and JP Guilford founded ''Psychometrika'' and also the Psychometric Society. Editorsinchief The complete list of editorinchief of Psychometrika can be found at: https://www.psychometricsociety.org/content/pastpsychometrikaeditors The following is a subset of persons who have been editorinchief of Psychometrika: * Paul Horst * Albert K. Kurtz * Dorothy Adkins * Norman Cliff * Roger Millsap * Shizuhiko Nishisato * Willem J. Heiser * Irini Moustaki ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Summation
In mathematics, summation is the addition of a sequence of any kind of numbers, called ''addends'' or ''summands''; the result is their ''sum'' or ''total''. Beside numbers, other types of values can be summed as well: functions, vectors, matrices, polynomials and, in general, elements of any type of mathematical objects on which an operation denoted "+" is defined. Summations of infinite sequences are called series. They involve the concept of limit, and are not considered in this article. The summation of an explicit sequence is denoted as a succession of additions. For example, summation of is denoted , and results in 9, that is, . Because addition is associative and commutative, there is no need of parentheses, and the result is the same irrespective of the order of the summands. Summation of a sequence of only one element results in this element itself. Summation of an empty sequence (a sequence with no elements), by convention, results in 0. Very often, the elements ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kendall Tau Rank Correlation Coefficient
In statistics, the Kendall rank correlation coefficient, commonly referred to as Kendall's τ coefficient (after the Greek letter τ, tau), is a statistic used to measure the ordinal association between two measured quantities. A τ test is a nonparametric hypothesis test for statistical dependence based on the τ coefficient. It is a measure of rank correlation: the similarity of the orderings of the data when ranked by each of the quantities. It is named after Maurice Kendall, who developed it in 1938, though Gustav Fechner had proposed a similar measure in the context of time series in 1897. Intuitively, the Kendall correlation between two variables will be high when observations have a similar (or identical for a correlation of 1) rank (i.e. relative position label of the observations within the variable: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) between the two variables, and low when observations have a dissimilar (or fully different for a correlation of −1) rank between the two variables ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frobenius Norm
In mathematics, a matrix norm is a vector norm in a vector space whose elements (vectors) are matrices (of given dimensions). Preliminaries Given a field K of either real or complex numbers, let K^ be the vector space of matrices with m rows and n columns and entries in the field K. A matrix norm is a norm on K^. This article will always write such norms with double vertical bars (like so: \, A\, ). Thus, the matrix norm is a function \, \cdot\, : K^ \to \R that must satisfy the following properties: For all scalars \alpha \in K and matrices A, B \in K^, *\, A\, \ge 0 (''positivevalued'') *\, A\, = 0 \iff A=0_ (''definite'') *\left\, \alpha A\right\, =\left, \alpha\ \left\, A\right\, (''absolutely homogeneous'') *\, A+B\, \le \, A\, +\, B\, (''subadditive'' or satisfying the ''triangle inequality'') The only feature distinguishing matrices from rearranged vectors is multiplication. Matrix norms are particularly useful if they are also submultiplicative: *\left\, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frobenius Inner Product
In mathematics, the Frobenius inner product is a binary operation that takes two matrices and returns a scalar. It is often denoted \langle \mathbf,\mathbf \rangle_\mathrm. The operation is a componentwise inner product of two matrices as though they are vectors, and satisfies the axioms for an inner product. The two matrices must have the same dimension  same number of rows and columns, but are not restricted to be square matrices. Definition Given two complex numbervalued ''n''×''m'' matrices A and B, written explicitly as : \mathbf = \,, \quad \mathbf = the Frobenius inner product is defined as, : \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle_\mathrm =\sum_\overline B_ \, = \mathrm\left(\overline \mathbf\right) \equiv \mathrm\left(\mathbf^ \mathbf\right) where the overline denotes the complex conjugate, and \dagger denotes Hermitian conjugate. Explicitly this sum is :\begin \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle_\mathrm = & \overline_ B_ + \overline_ B_ + \cdots + \overline_ B_ \\ & + ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric (mathematics)
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Group
In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions. In particular, the finite symmetric group \mathrm_n defined over a finite set of n symbols consists of the permutations that can be performed on the n symbols. Since there are n! (n factorial) such permutation operations, the order (number of elements) of the symmetric group \mathrm_n is n!. Although symmetric groups can be defined on infinite sets, this article focuses on the finite symmetric groups: their applications, their elements, their conjugacy classes, a finite presentation, their subgroups, their automorphism groups, and their representation theory. For the remainder of this article, "symmetric group" will mean a symmetric group on a finite set. The symmetric group is important to diverse areas of mathematics such as Galois theory, invariant theory, the representatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set (mathematics)
A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains '' elements'' or ''members'', which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. Indeed, set theory, more specifically Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, has been the standard way to provide rigorous foundations for all branches of mathematics since the first half of the 20th century. History The concept of a set emerged in mathematics at the end of the 19th century. The German word for set, ''Menge'', was coined by Bernard Bolzano in his work ''Paradoxes of the Infinite''. Georg Cantor, one of the founders of set theory, gave the following defin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 