Pullback (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a pullback (also called a fiber product, fibre product, fibered product or Cartesian square) is the limit of a diagram consisting of two morphisms and with a common codomain. The pullback is often written : and comes equipped with two natural morphisms and . The pullback of two morphisms and need not exist, but if it does, it is essentially uniquely defined by the two morphisms. In many situations, may intuitively be thought of as consisting of pairs of elements with in , in , and . For the general definition, a universal property is used, which essentially expresses the fact that the pullback is the "most general" way to complete the two given morphisms to a commutative square. The dual concept of the pullback is the ''pushout''. Universal property Explicitly, a pullback of the morphisms and consists of an object and two morphisms and for which the diagram : commutes. Moreover, the pullback must be universal wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism compos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Terminal Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every oneelement set (singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every onepoint space is a terminal object in this category. * In t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A (that is, each element of A belongs to exactly one of these images). A disjoint union of a family of pairwise disjoint sets is their union. In category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct of the category of sets, and thus defined up to a bijection. In this context, the notation \coprod_ A_i is often used. The disjoint union of two sets A and B is written with infix notation as A \sqcup B. Some authors use the alternative notation A \uplus B or A \operatorname B (along with the corresponding \biguplus_ A_i or \operatorname_ A_i). A standard way for building the disjoint union is to define A as the set of ordered pairs (x, i) such that x \in A_i, and the injection A_i \to A as x \mapsto (x, i). Example Consider the sets A_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projection Map
In mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set (or other mathematical structure) into a subset (or substructure), which is equal to its square for mapping composition, i.e., which is idempotent. The restriction to a subspace of a projection is also called a ''projection'', even if the idempotence property is lost. An everyday example of a projection is the casting of shadows onto a plane (sheet of paper): the projection of a point is its shadow on the sheet of paper, and the projection (shadow) of a point on the sheet of paper is that point itself (idempotency). The shadow of a threedimensional sphere is a closed disk. Originally, the notion of projection was introduced in Euclidean geometry to denote the projection of the threedimensional Euclidean space onto a plane in it, like the shadow example. The two main projections of this kind are: * The projection from a point onto a plane or central projection: If ''C'' is a point, called the center of projection, then the pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Restriction (mathematics)
In mathematics, the restriction of a function f is a new function, denoted f\vert_A or f , obtained by choosing a smaller domain A for the original function f. The function f is then said to extend f\vert_A. Formal definition Let f : E \to F be a function from a set E to a set F. If a set A is a subset of E, then the restriction of f to A is the function _A : A \to F given by _A(x) = f(x) for x \in A. Informally, the restriction of f to A is the same function as f, but is only defined on A. If the function f is thought of as a relation (x,f(x)) on the Cartesian product E \times F, then the restriction of f to A can be represented by its graph where the pairs (x,f(x)) represent ordered pairs in the graph G. Extensions A function F is said to be an ' of another function f if whenever x is in the domain of f then x is also in the domain of F and f(x) = F(x). That is, if \operatorname f \subseteq \operatorname F and F\big\vert_ = f. A '' '' (respectively, '' '', etc.) of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Sets
In the mathematical field of category theory, the category of sets, denoted as Set, is the category whose objects are sets. The arrows or morphisms between sets ''A'' and ''B'' are the total functions from ''A'' to ''B'', and the composition of morphisms is the composition of functions. Many other categories (such as the category of groups, with group homomorphisms as arrows) add structure to the objects of the category of sets and/or restrict the arrows to functions of a particular kind. Properties of the category of sets The axioms of a category are satisfied by Set because composition of functions is associative, and because every set ''X'' has an identity function id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' which serves as identity element for function composition. The epimorphisms in Set are the surjective maps, the monomorphisms are the injective maps, and the isomorphisms are the bijective maps. The empty set serves as the initial object in Set with empty functions as morphisms. Every s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Modules
In algebra, given a ring ''R'', the category of left modules over ''R'' is the category whose objects are all left modules over ''R'' and whose morphisms are all module homomorphisms between left ''R''modules. For example, when ''R'' is the ring of integers Z, it is the same thing as the category of abelian groups. The category of right modules is defined in a similar way. Note: Some authors use the term module category for the category of modules. This term can be ambiguous since it could also refer to a category with a monoidalcategory action. Properties The categories of left and right modules are abelian categories. These categories have enough projectives and enough injectives. Mitchell's embedding theorem states every abelian category arises as a full subcategory of the category of modules. Projective limits and inductive limits exist in the categories of left and right modules. Over a commutative ring, together with the tensor product of modules ⊗, the category of mo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Groups
In mathematics, the category Grp (or Gp) has the class of all groups for objects and group homomorphisms for morphisms. As such, it is a concrete category. The study of this category is known as group theory. Relation to other categories There are two forgetful functors from Grp, M: Grp → Mon from groups to monoids and U: Grp → Set from groups to sets. M has two adjoints: one right, I: Mon→Grp, and one left, K: Mon→Grp. I: Mon→Grp is the functor sending every monoid to the submonoid of invertible elements and K: Mon→Grp the functor sending every monoid to the Grothendieck group of that monoid. The forgetful functor U: Grp → Set has a left adjoint given by the composite KF: Set→Mon→Grp, where F is the free functor; this functor assigns to every set ''S'' the free group on ''S.'' Categorical properties The monomorphisms in Grp are precisely the injective homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are precisely the surjective homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are precise ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Product Ring
In mathematics, a product of rings or direct product of rings is a ring that is formed by the Cartesian product of the underlying sets of several rings (possibly an infinity), equipped with componentwise operations. It is a direct product in the category of rings. Since direct products are defined up to an isomorphism, one says colloquially that a ring is the product of some rings if it is isomorphic to the direct product of these rings. For example, the Chinese remainder theorem may be stated as: if and are coprime integers, the quotient ring \Z/mn\Z is the product of \Z/m\Z and \Z/n\Z. Examples An important example is Z/''n''Z, the ring of integers modulo ''n''. If ''n'' is written as a product of prime powers (see Fundamental theorem of arithmetic), :n=p_1^ p_2^\cdots\ p_k^, where the ''pi'' are distinct primes, then Z/''n''Z is naturally isomorphic to the product :\mathbf/p_1^\mathbf \ \times \ \mathbf/p_2^\mathbf \ \times \ \cdots \ \times \ \mathbf/p_k^\mathbf. This f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subring
In mathematics, a subring of ''R'' is a subset of a ring that is itself a ring when binary operations of addition and multiplication on ''R'' are restricted to the subset, and which shares the same multiplicative identity as ''R''. For those who define rings without requiring the existence of a multiplicative identity, a subring of ''R'' is just a subset of ''R'' that is a ring for the operations of ''R'' (this does imply it contains the additive identity of ''R''). The latter gives a strictly weaker condition, even for rings that do have a multiplicative identity, so that for instance all ideals become subrings (and they may have a multiplicative identity that differs from the one of ''R''). With definition requiring a multiplicative identity (which is used in this article), the only ideal of ''R'' that is a subring of ''R'' is ''R'' itself. Definition A subring of a ring is a subset ''S'' of ''R'' that preserves the structure of the ring, i.e. a ring with . Equivalently, it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Homomorphism
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a structurepreserving function between two rings. More explicitly, if ''R'' and ''S'' are rings, then a ring homomorphism is a function such that ''f'' is: :addition preserving: ::f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :multiplication preserving: ::f(ab)=f(a)f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :and unit (multiplicative identity) preserving: ::f(1_R)=1_S. Additive inverses and the additive identity are part of the structure too, but it is not necessary to require explicitly that they too are respected, because these conditions are consequences of the three conditions above. If in addition ''f'' is a bijection, then its inverse ''f''−1 is also a ring homomorphism. In this case, ''f'' is called a ring isomorphism, and the rings ''R'' and ''S'' are called ''isomorphic''. From the standpoint of ring theory, isomorphic rings cannot be distinguished. If ''R'' and ''S'' are rngs, then the cor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 