Planck (spacecraft)
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Planck (spacecraft)
''Planck'' was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the Anisotropy, anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infrared frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution. The mission substantially improved upon observations made by the NASA Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). ''Planck'' provided a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. Since the end of its mission, ''Planck'' has defined the most precise measurements of several key cosmological parameters, including the average density of ordinary matter and dark matter in the Universe and the age of the universe. The project was started around 1996 and was initially called COBRAS/SAMBA: the Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy Satellite/Satellite for Measurement of Background Anisotropie ...
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European Space Agency
, owner = , headquarters = Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ..., Île-de-France The Île-de-France (, ; literally "Isle of France") is the most populous of the eighteen regions of France France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in ..., France , coordinates = , spaceport = Guiana Space Centre The Guiana Space Centre (french: links=no, Centre Spatial Guyanais; CSG), also called Europe's Spaceport, is a and to the northwest of in , a region of France in South America. Operational since 1968, it is particularly suitable as a locat ... , seal = File:ESA emblem seal.png , seal_size = 130px , image = ESA Headquarters in Pari ...
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Matter
In classical physics Classical physics is a group of physics theories that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be modern, and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the ... and general chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ..., matter is any substance that has mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ... and takes up space by having volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a mu ...
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Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR), in Big Bang The Big Bang Scientific theory, theory is the prevailing cosmological model explaining the existence of the observable universe from the Planck units#Cosmology, earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model d ... cosmology, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ... which is a remnant from an early stage of the universe, also known as "relic radiation". The CMB is faint cosmic background radiation Image:Cobe-cosmic-background-radiation.gif, 256px, Temperature of the cosmic background radiation spectrum as determined with the COBE satellite: uncorrected (top), corrected for the dipole term due to our peculiar velocity (middle), and corrected ... fil ...
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Passivation (spacecraft)
The passivation of a spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ... is the removal of any internal energy contained in the vehicle at the end of its mission or useful life. Spent upper stage A multistage rocket or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket ''stages'', each of which contains its own Rocket engine, engines and Rocket propellant, propellant. A ''tandem'' or ''serial'' stage is mounted on top of anot ...s are generally passivated after their use as launch vehicles is complete, as are satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentiona ...
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Graveyard Orbit
A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is an orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ... that lies away from common operational orbits. One significant graveyard orbit is a supersynchronous orbitA supersynchronous orbit is either an orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit ref ... well beyond geosynchronous orbit A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an Earth-centered orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satel .... Some satellites ar ...
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Heliocentric Orbit
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ... around the barycenter In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ... of the Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects but uses mixed "Sola ..., which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical ...
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Polarization In Astronomy
Polarization (waves), Polarization is an important phenomenon in astronomy. Stars The polarization of star#Radiation, starlight was first observed by the astronomers William Hiltner and John S. Hall in 1949. Subsequently, Jesse Greenstein and Leverett Davis, Jr. developed theories allowing the use of polarization data to trace interstellar magnetic fields. Though the integrated thermal radiation of stars is not usually appreciably polarized at source, scattering by interstellar dust can impose polarization on starlight over long distances. Net polarization at the source can occur if the photosphere itself is asymmetric, due to limb polarization. Plane polarization of starlight generated at the star itself is observed for Ap stars (peculiar A type stars Sun Both circular polarization, circular and linear polarization of sunlight has been measured. Circular polarization is mainly due to transmission and absorption effects in strongly magnetic regions of the Sun's surface. Another mec ...
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Science (TV Network)
Science Channel (often referred to as simply Science; abbreviated to SCI) is an American pay television channel owned by Discovery, Inc. The channel features programming focusing on the fields of wilderness survival, ufology, manufacturing, construction, technology, Astronomy, space, prehistory and animal science. As of February 2015, Science is available to approximately 75.5 million pay television households (64.8% of households with at least one television set) in the United States. History In November 1994, Discovery Networks announced plans for four digital channels set to launch in 1996. Discovery originally named the network under the working title Quark!; this was changed before its launch to the Discovery Science Network. Discovery Science launched in October 1996 as part of the simultaneous rollout of the new channel suite (alongside Destination America, Discovery Home & Leisure, Discovery Kids and Investigation Discovery, Discovery Civilization). In 2007, adult shows ...
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How The Universe Works
''How the Universe Works'' is a documentary science television series that originally aired on the Discovery Channel Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American multinational pay television Pay television, also known as subscription television, premium television or, when re ... in 2010. The first and third through ninth seasons were narrated by Mike Rowe. The second season and episodes of the fifth and sixth seasons were narrated by Erik Todd Dellums Erik Todd Dellums (born 1964) is an American actor and narrator. He played the drug kingpin Luther Mahoney for two seasons on ''Homicide: Life on the Street'' and voiced the roles as the radio DJ Three-Dog in the 2008 video game ''Fallout 3'', Pr .... The first season, broadcast from April 25 to May 24, 2010, was released on Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something usi ...
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List Of Projects Of The European Space Agency
A ''list'' is any set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname)List or Liste is a European surname. Notable people with the surname include: List * Friedrich List (1789–1846), German economist * Garrett List (1943–2019), American trombonist * Guido von List (1848–1919), Austrian/German writer and occult ... Organizations * List College Albert A. List College of Jewish Studies, known simply as List College, is the undergraduate school of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS). It was founded by Solomon Schechter Solomon Schechter ( he, שניאור זלמן הכה ..., an undergraduate division of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America * SC Germania List The SC Germania List is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * Ge ..., German rugby uni ...
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Cannes Mandelieu Space Center
The Cannes Mandelieu Space Center is an industrial plant dedicated to spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ... manufacturing, located in both the towns of Cannes Cannes (; , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French ... and Mandelieu Mandelieu-la-Napoule (; oc, Mandaluec la Napola; locally spelled Mandelieu-La Napoule) is a Communes of France, commune in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region in South ... in France. After a long history in aircraft manufacturing An aircraft is a vehicle ...
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Black-body Radiation
Black-body radiation is the thermal Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represe ... electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ... within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online ... with its environment, emitted by a black body A black body or blackbody is an idealized physical object, phys ...
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