Peano Axioms
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano. These axioms have been used nearly unchanged in a number of metamathematical investigations, including research into fundamental questions of whether number theory is consistent and complete. The need to formalize arithmetic was not well appreciated until the work of Hermann Grassmann, who showed in the 1860s that many facts in arithmetic could be derived from more basic facts about the successor operation and induction. In 1881, Charles Sanders Peirce provided an axiomatization of naturalnumber arithmetic. In 1888, Richard Dedekind proposed another axiomatization of naturalnumber arithmetic, and in 1889, Peano published a simplified version of them as a collection of axioms in his book, ''The principles of arithmetic presented by a new method'' ( la, Arithmet ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Logic
Mathematical logic is the study of logic, formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power. However, it can also include uses of logic to characterize correct mathematical reasoning or to establish foundations of mathematics. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to and been motivated by the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and Mathematical analysis, analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's Hilbert's program, program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Richard Dedekind
Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to number theory, abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), and the axiomatic foundations of arithmetic. His best known contribution is the definition of real numbers through the notion of Dedekind cut. He is also considered a pioneer in the development of modern set theory and of the philosophy of mathematics known as ''Logicism''. Life Dedekind's father was Julius Levin Ulrich Dedekind, an administrator of Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig. His mother was Caroline Henriette Dedekind (née Emperius), the daughter of a professor at the Collegium. Richard Dedekind had three older siblings. As an adult, he never used the names Julius Wilhelm. He was born in Braunschweig (often called "Brunswick" in English), which is where he lived most of his life and died. He first attended the Collegium Carolinum in 1848 before transferring to the University ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ernst Schröder (mathematician)
Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ernst Schröder (25 November 1841 in Mannheim, Baden, Germany – 16 June 1902 in Karlsruhe, Germany) was a German mathematician mainly known for his work on algebraic logic. He is a major figure in the history of mathematical logic, by virtue of summarizing and extending the work of George Boole, Augustus De Morgan, Hugh MacColl, and especially Charles Peirce. He is best known for his monumental ''Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik'' (''Lectures on the Algebra of Logic'', 1890–1905), in three volumes, which prepared the way for the emergence of mathematical logic as a separate discipline in the twentieth century by systematizing the various systems of formal logic of the day. Life Schröder learned mathematics at Heidelberg, Königsberg, and Zürich, under Otto Hesse, Gustav Kirchhoff, and Franz Neumann. After teaching school for a few years, he moved to the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt in 1874. Two years later, he took up a chair in math ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

George Boole
George Boole (; 2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely selftaught English mathematician, philosopher, and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of ''The Laws of Thought'' (1854) which contains Boolean algebra. Boolean logic is credited with laying the foundations for the Information Age. Early life Boole was born in 1815 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, the son of John Boole senior (1779–1848), a shoemaker and Mary Ann Joyce. He had a primary school education, and received lessons from his father, but due to a serious decline in business, he had little further formal and academic teaching. William Brooke, a bookseller in Lincoln, may have helped him with Latin, which he may also have learned at the school of Thomas Bainbridge. He was selftaught in modern languages.H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gottlob Frege
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (; ; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He was a mathematics professor at the University of Jena, and is understood by many to be the father of analytic philosophy, concentrating on the philosophy of language, logic, and mathematics. Though he was largely ignored during his lifetime, Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), and, to some extent, Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) introduced his work to later generations of philosophers. Frege is widely considered to be the greatest logician since Aristotle, and one of the most profound philosophers of mathematics ever. His contributions include the development of modern logic in the ''Begriffsschrift'' and work in the foundations of mathematics. His book the ''Foundations of Arithmetic'' is the seminal text of the logicist project, and is cited by Michael Dummett as where to pinpoint the linguistic turn. His philosophical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Begriffsschrift
''Begriffsschrift'' (German for, roughly, "conceptscript") is a book on logic by Gottlob Frege, published in 1879, and the formal system set out in that book. ''Begriffsschrift'' is usually translated as ''concept writing'' or ''concept notation''; the full title of the book identifies it as "a formula language, modeled on that of arithmetic, for pure thought." Frege's motivation for developing his formal approach to logic resembled Leibniz's motivation for his ''calculus ratiocinator'' (despite that, in the foreword Frege clearly denies that he achieved this aim, and also that his main aim would be constructing an ideal language like Leibniz's, which Frege declares to be a quite hard and idealistic—though not impossible—task). Frege went on to employ his logical calculus in his research on the foundations of mathematics, carried out over the next quarter century. This is the first work in Analytical Philosophy, a field that future British and Anglo philosophers such as Bertr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Implication
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically ''follows from'' one or more statements. A valid logical argument is one in which the conclusion is entailed by the premises, because the conclusion is the consequence of the premises. The philosophical analysis of logical consequence involves the questions: In what sense does a conclusion follow from its premises? and What does it mean for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises?Beall, JC and Restall, Greg, Logical Consequence' The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). All of philosophical logic is meant to provide accounts of the nature of logical consequence and the nature of logical truth. Logical consequence is necessary and formal, by way of examples that explain with formal proof and models of interpretation. A sentence is said to be a logical consequ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Element (mathematics)
In mathematics, an element (or member) of a set is any one of the distinct objects that belong to that set. Sets Writing A = \ means that the elements of the set are the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Sets of elements of , for example \, are subsets of . Sets can themselves be elements. For example, consider the set B = \. The elements of are ''not'' 1, 2, 3, and 4. Rather, there are only three elements of , namely the numbers 1 and 2, and the set \. The elements of a set can be anything. For example, C = \ is the set whose elements are the colors , and . Notation and terminology The relation "is an element of", also called set membership, is denoted by the symbol "∈". Writing :x \in A means that "''x'' is an element of ''A''". Equivalent expressions are "''x'' is a member of ''A''", "''x'' belongs to ''A''", "''x'' is in ''A''" and "''x'' lies in ''A''". The expressions "''A'' includes ''x''" and "''A'' contains ''x''" are also used to mea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Schema
In mathematical logic, an axiom schema (plural: axiom schemata or axiom schemas) generalizes the notion of axiom. Formal definition An axiom schema is a formula in the metalanguage of an axiomatic system, in which one or more schematic variables appear. These variables, which are metalinguistic constructs, stand for any term or subformula of the system, which may or may not be required to satisfy certain conditions. Often, such conditions require that certain variables be free, or that certain variables not appear in the subformula or term. Finite axiomatization Given that the number of possible subformulas or terms that can be inserted in place of a schematic variable is countably infinite, an axiom schema stands for a countably infinite set of axioms. This set can usually be defined recursively. A theory that can be axiomatized without schemata is said to be finitely axiomatized. Theories that can be finitely axiomatized are seen as a bit more metamathematically elegant, even if ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Arithmetic
In mathematical logic, secondorder arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. A precursor to secondorder arithmetic that involves thirdorder parameters was introduced by David Hilbert and Paul Bernays in their book ''Grundlagen der Mathematik''. The standard axiomatization of secondorder arithmetic is denoted by Z2. Secondorder arithmetic includes, but is significantly stronger than, its firstorder counterpart Peano arithmetic. Unlike Peano arithmetic, secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over sets of natural numbers as well as numbers themselves. Because real numbers can be represented as (infinite) sets of natural numbers in wellknown ways, and because secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over such sets, it is possible to formalize the real numbers in secondorder arithmetic. For this reason, secon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Arithmetic
In mathematical logic, secondorder arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. A precursor to secondorder arithmetic that involves thirdorder parameters was introduced by David Hilbert and Paul Bernays in their book ''Grundlagen der Mathematik''. The standard axiomatization of secondorder arithmetic is denoted by Z2. Secondorder arithmetic includes, but is significantly stronger than, its firstorder counterpart Peano arithmetic. Unlike Peano arithmetic, secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over sets of natural numbers as well as numbers themselves. Because real numbers can be represented as (infinite) sets of natural numbers in wellknown ways, and because secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over such sets, it is possible to formalize the real numbers in secondorder arithmetic. For this reason, secon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Secondorder Logic
In logic and mathematics, secondorder logic is an extension of firstorder logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. Secondorder logic is in turn extended by higherorder logic and type theory. Firstorder logic quantifies only variables that range over individuals (elements of the domain of discourse); secondorder logic, in addition, also quantifies over relations. For example, the secondorder sentence \forall P\,\forall x (Px \lor \neg Px) says that for every formula ''P'', and every individual ''x'', either ''Px'' is true or not(''Px'') is true (this is the law of excluded middle). Secondorder logic also includes quantification over sets, functions, and other variables (see section below). Both firstorder and secondorder logic use the idea of a domain of discourse (often called simply the "domain" or the "universe"). The domain is a set over which individual elements may be quantified. Examples Firstorder logic can quantify over individuals, bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 