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Original Video Animation
, abbreviated as OVA and sometimes as OAV (original animation video), are Japanese animated films and series made specially for release in home video formats without prior showings on television or in theaters, though the first part of an OVA series may be broadcast for promotional purposes. OVA titles were originally made available on VHS, later becoming more popular on LaserDisc and eventually DVD. Starting in 2008, the term OAD (original animation DVD) began to refer to DVD releases published bundled with their source-material manga. Format Like anime made for television broadcast, OVAs are sub-divided into episodes. OVA media (tapes, laserdiscs or DVDs) usually contain just one episode each. Episode length varies from title to title: each episode may run from a few minutes to two hours or more. An episode length of 30 minutes occurs quite commonly, but no standard length exists. In some cases, the length of episodes in a specific OVA may vary greatly, for example in ''GaoGaiGa ...
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Anime
is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in English, ''anime'' is colloquial for ''Japanese animation'' and refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. Animation produced outside of Japan with similar style to Japanese animation is referred to as ''anime-influenced animation''. The earliest commercial Japanese animations date to 1917. A characteristic art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of cartoonist Osamu Tezuka and spread in following decades, developing a large domestic audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, through television broadcasts, directly to home media, and over the Internet. In addition to original works, anime are often adaptations of Japanese comics (manga), light novels, or video games. It is classified into numerous genres targeting various broad a ...
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Episode
An episode is a narrative unit within a larger dramatic work or documentary production, such as a series intended for radio, television or on-line consumption. Episode derives from the Greek term ( grc|ἐπεισόδιον / ''epeisodion''), meaning the material contained between two songs or odes in a Greek tragedy. It is abbreviated as ''ep'' (''plural'' eps). An episode is a coherent narrative unit within a larger dramatic work. It is frequently used to describe units of television or radio series that are broadcast separately in order to form one longer series. An episode is to a sequence as a chapter is to a book. Modern series episodes typically last 20 to 50 minutes in length. Episode even can be a part of specific subject such as, episode of life or episode of drama. See also * List of most-watched television episodes References Category:Ancient Greek theatre Category:Narrative units Category:Television terminology {{tv-stub ...
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Detective Conan
''Case Closed'', also known as , is a Japanese detective manga series written and illustrated by Gosho Aoyama. It has been serialized in Shogakukan's ''Weekly Shōnen Sunday'' since January 1994, and has been collected into 98 ''tankōbon'' volumes as of April 2020. Due to legal problems with the name ''Detective Conan'', the English language releases from Funimation and Viz were renamed to ''Case Closed''. The story follows the high school detective Shinichi Kudo (renamed as Jimmy Kudo in several English translations) who was transformed into a child while investigating a mysterious organization and solves a multitude of cases while impersonating his childhood best friend's father and other characters. The manga was adapted into an anime television series by Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation and TMS Entertainment, which premiered in January 1996. The anime resulted in animated feature films, original video animations, video games, audio disc releases and live action episodes. ...
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Side-story
A sequel is a work of literature, film, theatre, television, music or video game that continues the story of, or expands upon, some earlier work. In the common context of a narrative work of fiction, a sequel portrays events set in the same fictional universe as an earlier work, usually chronologically following the events of that work. In many cases, the sequel continues elements of the original story, often with the same characters and settings. A sequel can lead to a series, in which key elements appear repeatedly. Although the difference between more than one sequel and a series is somewhat arbitrary, it is clear that some media franchises have enough sequels to become a series, whether originally planned as such or not. Sequels are attractive to creators and to publishers because there is less risk involved in returning to a story with known popularity rather than developing new and untested characters and settings. Audiences are sometimes eager for more stories about popu ...
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Project
A project (or program) is any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned (usually by a project team) to achieve a particular aim. An alternative view sees a project managerially as a sequence of events: a "set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations". A project may be a temporary (rather than permanent) social system (work system), possibly constituted by teams (within or across organizations) to accomplish particular tasks under time constraints. A project may be a part of wider programme management or an ''ad hoc'' structure. Note that open-source software "projects" (for example) may lack defined team-membership, precise planning and time-limited durations. Overview The word ''project'' comes from the Latin word ''projectum'' from the Latin verb ''proicere'', "before an action" which in turn comes from ''pro-'', which denotes prece ...
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Story Arc
A story arc (also narrative arc) is an extended or continuing storyline in episodic storytelling media such as television, comic books, comic strips, boardgames, video games, and films with each episode following a dramatic arc. On a television program, for example, the story would unfold over many episodes. In television, the use of the story arc is common in sitcoms, and even more so in soap operas. In a traditional Hollywood film, the story arc usually follows a three-act format. Webcomics are more likely to use story arcs than newspaper comics, as most web comics have readable archives online that a newcomer to the strip can read in order to understand what is going on. Although story arcs have existed for decades, the term "story arc" was coined in 1988 in relation to the television series ''Wiseguy'', and was quickly adapted for other uses. Many American comic book series are now written in four or six-issue arcs, within a continuing series. Short story arcs are easier to pac ...
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Saint Seiya
, also known as ''Saint Seiya: Knights of the Zodiac'' or simply ''Knights of the Zodiac'', is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Masami Kurumada. The story follows five mystical warriors called the Saints who fight wearing sacred sets of armor named "Cloths", the designs of which derive from the various constellations the characters have adopted as their destined guardian symbols, and empowered by a mystical energy called "Cosmo". The Saints have sworn to defend the reincarnation of the Greek goddess Athena in her battle against other Olympian gods who want to dominate Earth. It was serialized in ''Weekly Shōnen Jump'' from 1986 to 1990, with the chapters collected into 28 ''tankōbon'' volumes by Shueisha. The manga was adapted into an anime television series by Toei Animation that ran from 1986 to 1989, before being continued in the form of three original video animation series between 2002 and 2008. Four animated feature films were shown in Japanese thea ...
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Masami Kurumada
is a Japanese manga artist and writer, known for specializing in fighting manga featuring bishōnen and magical boy. He is the founder of the manga studio Kurumada Productions or Kurumadapro for short. He is famous as the creator/author of popular manga, such as ''Ring ni Kakero'', ''Fūma no Kojirō'', ''Saint Seiya'' and ''B't X''. His male protagonists are a reflection of the classical and modern society's archetype of the ''true men''. The male characters in his works often display very masculine qualities and traits, and pursue to achieve courage and manhood perfection through sacrifice, selflessness and true heroism. He has won the best success award with ''Saint Seiya'' and the best inspiration award with ''Ring ni Kakero''. Profile Kurumada's first work was ''Otoko Raku'' , which earned him an award in a manga contest for aspiring manga artist, and became assistant to professional manga artists. Some time later, he debuted as a professional manga artist in 1974 with his m ...
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Nobuhiro Watsuki
, better known by his pen name , is a Japanese manga artist. He is best known for his samurai-themed series ''Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story'' (1994–1999), which has over 70 million copies in circulation and a sequel he is currently creating titled ''Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc'' (2017–present). He has written three more series, the western ''Gun Blaze West'' (2001), the supernatural ''Buso Renkin'' (2003–2005), and the horror manga ''Embalming -The Another Tale of Frankenstein-'' (2007–2015). Watsuki has mentored several well-known manga artists, including ''One Piece'' creator Eiichiro Oda, Hiroyuki Takei of ''Shaman King'' fame, and ''Mr. Fullswing'' author . Early life Watsuki was born in Tokyo and was brought up in Nagaoka, Niigata. When he was in middle school, Watsuki practiced kendo. He still drew manga but also enjoyed sports, although he never won a kendo match. Watsuki grew frustrated with kendo, and eventually quit. When he was challenged t ...
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Rurouni Kenshin
, also known sometimes as ''Samurai X'' in the TV show, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The story begins during the 11th year of the Meiji period in Japan (1878) and follows a former assassin from the Bakumatsu, known as Hitokiri Battosai. After his work against the bakufu, Hitokiri Battosai disappears to become Himura Kenshin: a wandering swordsman who protects the people of Japan with a vow never to take another life. Watsuki wrote the series upon his desire to make a ''shōnen manga'' different from the other ones that were published at the time, with Kenshin being a former assassin and the story taking a more serious tone as it continued. The manga revolves around themes of atonement, peace, and romance. The manga was serialized in Shueisha's ''Weekly Shōnen Jump'' magazine from April 1994 to September 1999. The complete work consists of 28 ''tankōbon'' volumes, while years later it was reprinted into twenty-two ''kanzenban'' volu ...
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Closure (psychology)
Closure or need for closure (NFC) (used interchangeably with need for cognitive closure (NFCC)) are social psychological terms that describe an individual's desire for a firm answer to a question and an aversion toward ambiguity. The term "need" denotes a motivated tendency to seek out information. Introduction The need for closure is the motivation to find an answer to an ambiguous situation. This motivation is enhanced by the perceived benefits of obtaining closure, such as the increased ability to predict the world and a stronger basis for action. This motivation is also enhanced by the perceived costs of lacking closure, such as missing deadlines. According to Kruglanski et al., need for closure exerts its effects via two general tendencies: the urgency tendency (the inclination to attain closure as quickly as possible) and the permanence tendency (the tendency to maintain it for as long as possible). Together, these tendencies may produce the inclinations to seize and then f ...
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Earthian
is a yaoi manga by Yun Kouga about angel watchers of earth which was made into a J.C.Staff-produced anime OVA. The angels' roles are to assess the progress of humans giving them positive and negative scores based on their everyday actions. The angels, who have deemed that the Earthian are becoming far too destructive, decide that if the Earthian reach 10,000 negative marks instead of positive, then their world will be destroyed. While there are many sets of positive/negative partner teams that have descended to the Earth to carry out their investigations, the story focuses on a single pair that, due to the carelessness (or perhaps over-caring nature) of one, causes both to end up in trying circumstances multiple times throughout their stay on Earth... There are four OVAs total, three of which continue the same plot, and another that delves into a separate side story. All of them coincide with the original manga. Story For thousands of years angels have observed the behavio ...
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Nikkei Business Publications
, commonly known as , is a book and magazine publisher based in Tokyo, Japan. The company was established as , a joint venture of Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) and McGraw-Hill in 1969, and it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Nikkei in 1988. Nikkei BP is known well for its various magazines on segmentalized business and technology fields, and a direct-sales system of the magazines. Major magazines and websites *, a weekly business magazine founded as a sister magazine of Business Week in 1969, website iEnglishanJapanese *, a semimonthly electronics industry magazine founded as a sister magazine of Electronics in 1971. *, a semimonthly enterprise computing magazine published since 1981. *, a semimonthly personal computer magazine published since 1983, website iJapanese *, a monthly leading computer magazine founded as a sister magazine of Byte in 1984, and was ceased in 2005. *, a Japanese local edition of National Geographic published by , a joint venture of Nikkei BP and National ...
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Bandai Visual
was a Japanese anime, film production and distribution enterprise, established by Bandai and a subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings. Most of the anime and films that have been distributed and licensed by Bandai Visual have been released under the Emotion label. After the reorganization of Bandai Namco Holdings in 2006, Bandai Visual headed the group's Visual and Music Content Strategic Business Unit. Its subsidiaries included the Emotion Music Company, Ltd. (whose logos also include the Moai from Easter Island), and Lantis music publishing labels. Until 2012, it was involved in the production and distribution of several anime titles, including those it has directly produced itself and anime series produced by the anime studio Sunrise, an alternate anime studio subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings. In September 2017, Bandai Visual acquired the anime studio Actas. History Origins and expansion (1983–1996) On August 23, 1983, Japanese toy manufacturer Bandai established AE Plannin ...
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Kissxsis
''Kiss×sis'' (stylized as ''kiss×sis''; pronounced "kiss sis") is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Bow Ditama. It began serialization in ''Bessatsu Young Magazine'' in December 2005. It was then moved and serialized in ''Weekly Young Magazine'' from 2008 to 2009, and it is currently being serialized in ''Monthly Young Magazine'' since 2009. Kodansha has collected its chapters in 23 ''tankōbon'' volumes as of December 2020. It was adapted into an original video animation series, released from December 2008 to April 2015. A 12-episode anime television series by Feel aired from April to June 2010 on AT-X. Plot Keita Suminoe is a third-year Japanese middle school student living with his father, stepmother, and older twin stepsisters, Ako and Riko. Since the remarriage of their parents at childhood, the siblings have always been affectionately close and supportive of one another. Nowadays the trio see their opposites in a noticeably less platonic fashion; Ako and ...
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